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2.1.4 Buddhism

2.1.4.1 Outline

Yahweh created Buddhism inspiring Siddhartha Gautama in India.
It is said that Siddhartha Gautama was born in Lumbini on the southern foot of the Himalayas like in 563 BCE or 480 BCE. He was purportedly the son of a chief of a minor clan (the Shakya clan). He left the palace at the age of 29 to seek for true teachings. He was inspired and acquired the teachings at the age of 35 in Bodhgaya to the southeast of Lumbini. He started delivering his teachings in Sarnath and died in Kushinagar near Lumbini at the age of 80 like in 483 BCE or 400 BCE.
"Buddha" means "awakened one" or "enlighted one" in Buddhism.



A Relief of an Ancient Buddhism (200-300 BCE) in Bharhut, Central-Northeastern India, near Bodhgaya
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BharutRelief.jpg
* "Bharhut in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bharhut

* "Buddhism in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism

2.1.4.2 Details

2.1.4.2.1 Teachings of Gautama Buddha

According to Rael, Yahweh briefly mentioned about Buddhism.
For one thing, Buddhism tells that the soul of a dead person should attempt to escape devils. Otherwise, they would fall back into the never-ending cycle of reincarnation again. However, Yahweh claims this doctrine in fact applies not to individuals but rather to humanity or humankind. Humankind may progress to a certain extent anyway. However, if humankind is not wise enough, it would ruin itself and fall back into low-level civilization again. Contrary to that, if humankind is wise enough, it would evade self-destruction and improve its civilization.
Secondly, Yahweh says diffusion of Buddhism is preferable, since Buddhism is well balanced between science and spirituality for humans in the new era.


The teachings of Buddha would be avoiding evil, doing good, and purifying one's mind to overcome suffering. Specifically, he recommends believing the Four Noble Truths, and following the Noble Eightfold Path and the Five Precepts.

The Four Noble Truths are
1: Life is filled with suffering.
2: The suffering comes from attachment to desires, which wouldn't be fully satisfied.
3: Then desires should be abandoned to stop suffering.
4: The Noble Eightfold Paths should be kept to abandon desires.

The Noble Eightfold Paths are
1: Learn the Four Noble Truths.
2: Abandon worldly things and don't harm others.
3: Tell the truth and don't speak ill of others.
4: Don't commit evil acts like killing, stealing, or living an unclean life.
5: Work for good and oppose evil.
6: Do rewarding work.
7: Keep your senses under control.
8: Practice meditation as a way understanding reality.

The Five Precepts are
1: Don't hurt a person or an animal that is alive.
2: Don't take anything that is not given to you.
3: Don't engage in sexual misconduct.
4: Don't lie or say anything that hurt people.
5: Don't take intoxicants, like alcohol and drug, causing heedlessness.

* "Buddhism in Simple Wikipedia" https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buddhism

2.1.4.2.2 Gautama's Outward Appearance

As mentioned above, Siddhartha Gautama was born in Lumbini, ancient northeastern India likely in 563 BCE or 480 BCE.
He was purportedly the son of a leader of the Shakya clan.
The Shakya clan was a small dependent clan subject to the large country Kosala. Kosala located on the west of Shakya. The other large country Magadha located on the south of Shakya.

*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mahajanapadas_(c._500_BCE).png

The ethnic identity of Shakya and Gautama is controversial. Typically, Gautama's skin color is controversial.
In relation to that, Indian ethnic groups are complicated and controversial. Some pieces of knowledge regarding Indian populations are as follows.
The skin colors of southern or southeastern Indian populations are generally dark. In contrast, the skin colors of north or northwestern Indian populations are generally light.
The major Indian languages including major ancient Indian languages are generally similar to European languages, Indo-European family language.
Other than that, earlier than 1500 BCE, Brahmanizm (later Hinduism) was established in India along with the social class system Varna or Caste. "Varna" means outward appearance such as color. Brahmanizm (and Hinduism) defines four Varnas (classes).
The four Varnas are
(1) Brahmins: priests, teachers and preachers.
(2) Kshatriyas: kings, governors, warriors and soldiers.
(3) Vaishyas: cattle herders, agriculturists, businessmen, artisans, and merchants.
(4) Shudras: labourers and service providers like slaves.
(the fifth varna "Dalit (Untouchable)" was not specified at the time.)
The Varnas quite related to the skin color. Higher varnas mostly consists of light skin. Lower varnas mostly consists of dark skin. Mixture between different varnas was strictly forbidden in an early period, but mixture somewhat occurred in Buddha's era.
* "Brahmanism in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmanism
* "Varna (Hinduism) in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Varna_(Hinduism)

Then the popular version presented is "Indo-Aryan Migration Theory." According to the Indo-Aryan Migration Theory, the early peoples were generally called Dravidian. Dravidian mostly had dark skin and came from Africa earlier than 1800 BCE, while other minor ethnic groups such as mongoloid might have been included. (Dravidian might have been responsible for the Indus Valley Civilization in northwest India during 2600-1900 BCE.) Subsequently, peoples called Indo-Aryan came from the northwest like around 1700 BCE. Indo-Aryan were a kind of European population. Indo-Aryan generally had light skin and spoke European language. Indo-Aryan conquered India mostly from the northwest like Gandhara and Dravidian were rather subdued or enslaved. Indo-Aryan introduced European languages, Brahmanism and the social class system Varna to govern conveniently.
* "Dravidian Peoples in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dravidian_peoples
* "Indo-Aryan Peoples in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Aryan_peoples
* "Indus Valley Civilization in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization
* "Indo-Aryan Migration Theory in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Aryan_migration_theory

Regarding the Shakya clan and Gautama's skin color, the common theory claims that the skin color should be light, since Gautama and his family should be rulers and Kshatriyas. In addition, it claims that Gautama should be Indo-Aryan similar to European people.
However, since mixture between different varnas could have occurred in Buddha's era, Gautama might not be Indo-aryan. For example, a story tells that varna couldn't be distinguished from a viewpoint of appearance. The story tells that Kosala requested the Shakya clan to send a princess. However, the Shakya clan send a daughter of a slave instead deceiving Kosala with distrust. The daughter of the slave became the queen of Kosala and gave birth to later Kosala's king Vidadubha. Subsequently, Vidadubha learned that the Shakya clan deceived Kosala and massacred the Shakya clan. It means that varna or social class of the Shakya clan couldn't be distinguished from a view point of physical appearance.
In addition, according to Rael's book, Rael says that he met recreated 40 humans who once lived on Earth. Rael had a meal with them and 3 Elohim including Yahweh. Rael refers to Gautama as follows.
"I was sitting to the right of the Eloha whom l had met two years earlier, and to the left of the two other Elohim. Facing me sat a young bearded man, very handsome and very slim. He wore a mysterious smile and an expression filled with fraternal feeling. To his right was a man with a noble face sporting a black beard that was very thick and very long. To his left was a more corpulent man with an Asian face, He had a shaven head."
Subsequently, Yahweh introduced some guests as follows.
"I am referring to Jesus, whom we were able to recreate from a cell that we had preserved before his crucifixion."
The handsome, bearded, young man seated opposite offered me a smile full of fraternity.
"To his right is Moses, to his left Elijah, and to the left of Elijah sits the one remembered on Earth by the name of Buddha. A little further on you can see Muhammad, in whose writings I am called Allah, because out of respect they did not dare call me by name."
If "To his left was a more corpulent man with an Asian face, He had a shaven head." means immediately to the left of Jesus, he would be Elijah. However, it is quite odd that Elijah is particularly Asian face unlike Jesus and Moses.
In contrast, if "To his left was a more corpulent man with an Asian face, He had a shaven head." allows the interpretation that the seat two away to the left of Jesus, he (the corpulent man with an Asian face) would be Gautama and it would be rather understandable.
Then Gautama would be like an Asian.

2.1.4.2.3 History of Indian Language

Buddha's Teachings could be integrated in Buddhism scriptures. However, Buddhism holds over 7000 scriptures and words are so numerous that one would not be able to grasp the point. Then key scriptures should be recognized, history of Indian languages should be traced to learn meaning of each scripture, while "grammars and words" and "letters" should be distinguished.
Going into history of Buddhism and Indian languages, as mentioned above, the earlier residents were Dravidian with dark skin color. Dravidian wouldn't have developed letters, while the Indus Valley Civilization in northwest India during 2600-1900 BCE had simple Indus script.

Simple Indus Script
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Indusseal.JPG

Subsequently, Indo-Aryan with light skin color came from the northwest around 1700 BCE. Indo-Aryan dominated India, introduced Brahmanism and their leaders became Brahmins (priests). Their language at the time around 1500 BCE would be Vedic Sanskrit. However, Vedic Sanskrit woudn't have letters. Subsequently, Vedic Sanskrit was reformed into Classical Sanskrit by the scholar Panini some time between 700 BCE-300 BCE. On the other hand, it seems that various dialects occurred from Sanskrit, while "grammars and words" of the dialects were more or less similar. Various dialects are called Prakrit. Ancient Magadhi language (East Indian dialect), Gujarat language (West Indian dialect), and Pali language would be Prakrit around 300 BCE. On the other hand, Indian (developed) letters wouldn't yet be seen even in (Classical) Sanskrit.

The language Buddha spoke would be "ancient Magadhi" (a dialect of present-day "Bihari" language). Ancient Magadhi was a colloquial language (Prakrit; literally: natural language). (The formal sacred language at the time was Sanskrit.) Buddha didn't leave documented sutras.
The First Buddhist Council by 500 disciples took place near Bodhgaya in Magadha Kingdom just after Buddha's death to preserve Buddha's sayings (supposedly around 486-400 BCE). The disciples at the time resoluted oral sutras about Buddha's saying and doing. However, since his teachings were forbidden to be documented by Buddha himself, his words and deeds were kept through oral instruction and memorization for 200 years after his death including the (oral) sutras in the First Buddhist Council and the Second Buddhist Council. The oral sutras in the First Buddhist Council and the Second Buddhist Council are not extant.
* "First Buddhist Council in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Buddhist_council
The Second Buddhist Council took place about 100 years after the First Buddhist Council (around 386-300 BCE). (As mentioned above, Buddha's teachings were kept through oral instruction.) As a result of the Second Council, disciples split into two groups, "Sthavira Nikaya school" and "Mahasanghika school." Sthavira school was in a sense particular about the original strict teachings. Mahasanghika school was in a sense particular about propagation.
Other than that, many schools arose, oral sutras kept by many schools became somewhat different.
* "Second Buddhist Council in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Buddhist_council
* "Sthavira Nikaya in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sthavira_nik%C4%81ya
* "Mahasanghika in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mah%C4%81s%C4%81%E1%B9%83ghika

Subsequently, the Mauryan King Ashoka appeared, quite patronaged Buddhism around 260 BCE. However, because of Ashoka's patronage, bogus monks and schools appeared expecting wealth, different sutras arose. Then King Ashoka supposedly held the Third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra (in present-day Indian state of Bihar) in Magadha Kingdom between Bodhgaya and Lumbini ca. 250 BCE to clarify the teachings of Buddha employing the monk Moggaliputta-Tissa . Importance of the Third Buddhist Council is mostly claimed by later Theravada school, according to later Theravada school, a group of Sthavira school won in the Third Council and the group became Theravada school. Theravada school's teachings were spread to a certain extent by King Ashoka.
On the other hand, it is said that the first documented sutras were written through the Third Buddhist Council. However, the first documented sutras supposedly written in Magadhi dialect and Brahmi script are not extant.
* "Third Buddhist Council in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Third_Buddhist_council
* "Moggaliputta-Tissa in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moggaliputta-Tissa

Yet, Ashoka also created Ashoka Pillars describing edicts based on Buddhism morality around India. The first attested Indian (developed) letters would be Ashoka Pillars' Brahmi script around 250 BCE. Brahmi supposedly came from Achaemenid Persian Empire's Aramic alphabet. Ashoka Pillars were grammatically written in Prakrit (people's languages or dialects) such as Magadhi dialect (East Indian dialect) and Gujarat dialect (West Indian dialect).

Brahmi Script on Ashoka Pillar
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brahmi_script_on_Ashoka_Pillar,_Sarnath.jpg

Another Brahmi Script on Ashoka Pillar
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Asokan_brahmi_pillar_edict.jpg
* "Prakrit in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prakrit
* "Magahi Language in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magahi_language
* "Pillars of Ashoka in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pillars_of_Ashoka

Subsequently, Theravada school prospered in Sri Lanka supposedly because of Sri Lanka's isolation, but because of famine in Sri Lanka, many Theravada monks died. Facing this crisis, Theravada's teachings were wrote on palm leaves as Pali Canon in Sri Lanka in Pali dialect (grammar and words) with Brahmi script after the Fourth Buddhist Council in Sri Lanka in 29 BCE. (Until the council, Buddhism teachings were preserved through oral instruction, since it is said that Gautama forbade writing the teachings.)
Since Pali dialect (grammar and words) is similar to Gujarat dialect (grammar and words) (West Indian dialect), Pali dialect (grammar and words) would be originally West Indian dialect and survived in Sri Lanka. (Pali dialect and Buddhism would be introduced from West India to Sri Lanka through the sea route.)
* "Pali Canon in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81li_Canon
* "Pali in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81li
* "Fourth Buddhist Council in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourth_Buddhist_Council
Afterward Buddhism deeply split into Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. Theravada Buddhism (literally: ancient teaching) is particular about the original teachings of Buddha. Mahayana Buddhism (literally: great vehicle) is particular about propagation.

On the other hand, Mahayana Buddhism succeeded to a certain extent in the Gupta Empire in northern India around 400 CE and sutras were documented grammatically in Gupta's official language Sanskrit. (The letter at the time would be Brahmi script.) Mahayana Buddhism then spread through Gandhara to present-day China, Korea, and Japan and the sutras were translated into Chinese Buddhist Canon in Chinese language.

Subsequently, as far as letters, Brahmi script gave birth to other various letters. The various letters are called Brahmic Scripts. For example, Gupta script appeared around 450 CE in Northern India.
However, Buddhism in India itself declined through oppression by King Mihirakula (in the reign of 512-528 CE; supposedly a Zoroastrian) and subsequently by Islam and Hinduism.
Gupta script gave birth to Shiddham script around 600 CE. Shiddam script was used to describe many Buddhist texts at the time in (Classical) Sanskrit grammar and words. The Shiddam Buddhist texts were brought to China through Gandhara and the Silk Road.
Gupta script also gave birth to Devanagari around 700 CE. Buddhist texts in India started to be written with Devanagari (in Sanskrit) around 900 CE instead of Shiddam.
(In addition, Mahayana spread to Tibet during 7-14 century CE and Indian sutras were translated into Tibetan Buddhist Canon.)
* "Brahmic Scripts in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brahmic_scripts
* "Siddam Script in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Siddha%E1%B9%83_script
* "Devanagari in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devanagari

Consequently, major documented sutras extant are Pali Canon in Theravada Buddhism written in Pali dialect, Chinese Buddhist Canon, and additionally Tibetan Buddhist Canon.
Pali Canon exclusively consists of classic traditional scriptures called Tripitaka. Tripitaka consists of 3 categories of texts, Vinaya (rules for monks and nuns), Sutta Pitaka (sermons of Gautama), and Abhidharma (philosophical discourse and interpretaion supposedly by later scholars soon after Gautama's death). Chinese Buddhist Canon includes Tripitaka and other later additional texts, Mahayana Sutras and Texts of the Esoteric Buddhism. (Tibetan Buddhist Canon consists of Texts of the Esoteric Buddhism.)
As far as Tripitaka in Pali Canon and Chinese Buddhist Canon, these are roughly similar. However, since they were particular about beliefs respectively, details might have altered and some sutras were ignored, created, or added in accordance with each beliefs (or possibly additional inspiration evoked by Yahweh) and they are to a certain extent different each other. (Chinese Buddhist Canon includes later additional Mahayana Sutras and Texts of the Esoteric Buddhism.)
Extant sutras which describe directly about Buddha's life (sayings and deeds) like Gospels are "Sutta Pitaka" in Pali Canon and in Chinese Buddhist Canon. Then Sutta Pitaka would be the closest clues to find Buddha's sayings and deeds.
Sutta Pitaka in Pali Canon and Sutta Pitaka in Chinese Buddhist Canon are similar, but somewhat different because of each denomination's view. (Components of Pali Canon's Sutta Pitaka are called Nikayas and components of Chinese Buddhist Canon's Sutta Pitaka are called Agamas. For example, the Ekottara Agama of Chinese Buddhist Canon's Sutta Pitaka roughly corresponds to the Anguttara Nikaya of Pali Canon's Sutta Pitaka.)
* "Tripitaka in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tripi%E1%B9%ADaka
* "Englis Publication Project of Buddhist Canon" http://www.bdk.or.jp/english/english_tripitaka/publication_project.html

2.1.4.2.4 Gautama's Father

A theory claims Gautama Buddha's possible association with snakes and suggests that Gautama's father could be Lucifer, who is compared to a serpent.

One thing supporting this theory is the Jataka tale of Queen Maya's dream conceiving Gautama. The Jataka tales are Buddhist records amounting to over 500 about Buddha's birth stories before Gautama's birth from Queen Maya. According to the Jataka tale of Queen Maya's dream, Queen Maya dreamt that a trunk of an elephant holding a white lotus flower gained entry to her body through her right underarm and reached her womb. Accordingly Gautama was conceived in her womb. It means that Queen Maya became pregnant without sexual intercourse and informed of the pregnancy like Jesus' mother Mary, who conceived an Eloha's baby.
"THEN was proclaimed in the city of Kapilavatthu the midsummer festival of the month Āsālha, and many people celebrated the festivities. The queen Mahāmāyā, beginning from the seven days before the full moon, celebrated the festival with the splendour of garlands and perfumes, and without the drinking of intoxicants. On the seventh day she rose early, bathed in scented water, bestowed a great gift of 400,000 pieces of money as alms, being adorned with all kinds of ornaments, ate of choice food, performed the holy-day vows, and entered the splendidly adorned royal bedchamber, And lying on the royal bed she fell asleep, and dreamt this dream: The four kings raised her together with the bed, and took her to the Himalaya to the Manosilā tableland, sixty leagues in length, and placing her beneath a great sal-tree, seven leagues high, they stood on one side. Then their queens took the queen to the lake Anotattā, bathed her to remove human stain, robed her in a divine dress, anointed her with perfumes, and decked her with divine flowers. Not far from there is Silver mountain, and on it a golden palace. There they prepared and set a divine bed with its head to the east. Then the Bodhisatta became a white elephant. Not far from there is a certain Golden mountain, and the Bodhisatta went there, descended from it, ascended Silver mountain, approaching it from the north, and in his trunk, like a silver chain, he bore a white lotus. He trumpeted, entered the golden palace, made a rightwise circle three times round his mother's bed, smote her right side, and seemed to enter her womb. Thus at the end of the midsummer festival he received a new existence. The next day, on awaking, the queen told her dream to the king. The king summoned sixty-four famous brahmins, caused the ground to be strewn with festive lāja-flowers, prepared splendid seats, filled the gold and silver bowls of the brahmins seated there with cooked ghee, honey, sugar, and excellent rice, and gave it to them covered with gold and silver covers. He also delighted them with other gifts, such as new clothes and tawny cows. Then, when they were delighted with all these pleasures, he related the dream. 'What will take place?' he asked. The brahmins said, 'King, be not anxious, the queen has conceived, and the child will be a male, not a female. You will have a son, and if he lives a household life, he will become a universal monarch; and if he leaves his house and goes forth from the world, he will become a Buddha, a dispeller of illusion in the world.'" (Jāt. Introd, I. 50 ff.)
* "Buddhanet Life of Buddha 1" http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/1lbud.htm
* "Sacred Text: the Dream of Queen Maya, Jataka" http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/busc/busc04.htm
* "Sacred Text: Buddhist Scriptures by E. J. Thomas, 1913" http://www.sacred-texts.com/bud/busc/index.htm
* "Jataka Tales in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jataka_tales
* "Palikanon Maya" http://www.palikanon.com/english/pali_names/maha/mahamaayaa.htm
The 2 major schools of Buddhism are Theravada Buddhism and Mahayana Buddhism. The canon of Theravada Buddhism is the Pali Canon, the canon of Mahayana Buddhism is the Chinese Buddhist Canon, and the Pali Canon is quite particular about ancient texts.
Then referring to the Pali Canon, according to Theragatha (the Verses of the Elders), Khuddaka Nikaya, Sutta Pitaka of the Pali Canon, Theragatha 1240 states that Gautama is called "naga" and 1279 states that Gautama is a son of "naga." As seen in the following website's introduction, "naga" has 2 meanings, bull elephant and serpent. Then the elephant of Maya's dream could be a serpent and Gautama could be the serpent's (Lucifer's) son.
1240. naganamo'si bhagava isinam isisattamo mahamegho va hutvana savake abhivassasi.
1240. "You are called a naga, Fortunate One; of seers, you are the best of seers. Like a great rain-cloud, you rain down upon the disciples."
1279. tam devadevam vandami puttam te dvipaduttama anujatam mahaviram nagam nagassa orasam.
1279. "I pay homage to you, the god of gods, and to your son, O best of bipeds, to the great hero born in your tracks, a naga, a true son of the naga."

* "Vangisa Theragatha" http://www.bps.lk/olib/wh/wh417-p.html
* "Buddhist Schools Buddhanet" http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhistworld/schools1.htm
Other than that, it should be noted that "best of bipeds" in 1279 is quite weird. It might suggest that "naga" is not merely a metaphor concerned with Lucifer, assume that Gautama's father is actually a bull elephant or a serpent (not bipedal), and its son became the best of bipedal beings.
This assumption could be associated with Reptilians mentioned later, the context could suggest alleged serpents' (Reptilians') involvement in human history on the Earth.

The second thing supporting this theory would be the king of cobra (snake) Mucalinda, which supported Gautama's enlightment
During Gautama's enlightment, a heavy rain started to fall, but the large king cobra Mucalinda appeared, protected Gautama coiling seven times around Gautama. (The snake coiling might suggest a flying saucer (alien space craft) embracing Gautama.)
* Buddhanet Life of Buddha 17" http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/buddhism/lifebuddha/17lbud.htm
* "Ancient Buddhist Texts Mucalinda" http://www.ancient-buddhist-texts.net/English-Texts/Exalted-Utterances/2-Mucalindavaggo-01.htm

The third thing supporting this theory could be Gautama's shaved head, which resembles the head of a snake. Contrary to common ideas of Gautama Buddha's matted hair, Gautama shaved his head, although Yahweh generally recommends long hair to receive telepathy.
7 Vasala Sutta, 1. The Snake Chapter, Sutta Nipata (116-), Khuddaka Nikaya, Sutta Pitaka, Tripitaka of the Pali Canon tells as follows. In this discourse, "the Blessed One" means Gautama. "Brahmins" are practitioners of ancient Hindu priests, while ancient Hinduism and brahmins dominated India at the time.
"Thus have I heard: On one occasion the Blessed One was residing at Anathapindika's monastery in the Jeta Grove, near Savatthi. Then in the forenoon, the Blessed One having put on His robes, carrying His bowl and outer robe, went into Savatthi for alms. Now at that time, in the house of the brahmin Aggikabharadvaja, a fire was burning, and an offering was being prepared. Then the Blessed One, while on his alms round, came to the brahmin Aggikabharadvaja's residence. The brahmin seeing, the Blessed One approaching afar, went to Him and said this: 'Stay there, you shaveling, stay there you wretched monk, stay there you outcast.' When he spoke thus, the Blessed One said to the brahmin: 'Do you know, brahmin, who an outcast is and what the conditions that make an outcast?'"
* "Ja Scribd Basic Buddhism Vasala Sutta" https://ja.scribd.com/document/278918876/BasicBuddhism-Vasala-Sutta
(Above website correctly translates "brahmin," which means a priest of ancient Hinduism. On the other hand, following websites incorrectly translate "brahmin" as "brahman," which means the highest Universal Principle in Hinduism.)
* "Access to Insight Vasala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, KN" http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/kn/snp/snp.1.07.piya.html
* "Pali Canon Online Vasala Sutta, Sutta Nipata, KN" http://www.palicanon.org/index.php/sutta-pitaka/khuddaka-nikaya/102-sutta-nipata/953-sn-1-7-vasala-sutta-discourse-on-outcasts
In addition, 4 the Discourse to Sundarika Bharadvaja, 3 Great Chapter, Sutta Nipata (Sn 455-), Khuddaka Nikaya, Sutta Pitaka, Tripitaka of the Pali Canon tells that Gautama covered his shaved head with a robe.
"Thus have I heard: At one time the Blessed One was staying on the bank of the Sundarika river in Kosala. Now at that time, the brahmin Sundarika Bhara,dvaja was making an offering to the fire, performing the Agni-hotra [the fire offering], on the bank of the Sundarika river. Then, having made the offering to the fire and performed the Agni-hotra, the brahmin Sundarika Bhara,dvaja rose from his seat and looked around in the four directions, thinking: 'Who now might partake of this sacrificial remains?' The brahmin Sundarika Bhara,dvaja then saw the Blessed One not far away sitting at the foot of a tree, with his head covered (by his robe). When he saw him, he took the sacrificial remains in the left hand and his water-pot in the right hand, and went up to the Blessed One. The Blessed One, upon hearing the brahmin Sundarika Bhara,dvaja's footfall, uncovered his head. Then the brahmin Sundarika Bhara,dvaja thought, 'The good man is shaven-headed! This good man is a shaveling!' and so wanted to turn back. Then he thought, 'Now there are some brahmins here who are shaven-headed. What now if I were to approach him and ask him about his descent.'"
* "Dharmafarer Discourse to Sundarika Bharadvaja Download" http://dharmafarer.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/22.2-Sundarika-Bharadvaja-S-sn3.4-piya.pdf&sa=U&ved=0ahUKEwiRoY7lvt_SAhULS7wKHfuoCt0QFggiMAM&usg=AFQjCNH5ftkryvE8-ftZ0i8i2XOef-rgAw
26 The Holy Man, Dammapada rather tells that Gautama talked about brahmins' matted hair. As quoted above, Gautama frequently talked to brahmins claiming his ideas. As told "your matted hair," brahmins' hair was matted. Brahmins' matted hair would be the origin of the incorrect idea of Gautama's matted hair.
390. Nothing is better for a holy man than when he holds his mind back from what is endearing. To the extent the intent to harm wears away, to that extent does suffering subside.
391. He who does no evil in deed, word and thought, who is restrained in these three ways -- him do I call a holy man.
392. Just as a brahman priest reveres his sacrificial fire, even so should one devoutly revere the person from whom one has learned the Dhamma taught by the Buddha.
393. Not by matted hair, nor by lineage, nor by birth does one become a holy man. But he in whom truth and righteousness exist -- he is pure, he is a holy man.
394. What is the use of your matted hair, O witless man? What of your garment of antelope's hide? Within you is the tangle (of passion); only outwardly do you cleanse yourself.
395. The person who wears a robe made of rags, who is lean, with veins showing all over the body, and who meditates alone in the forest -- him do I call a holy man.
396. I do not call him a holy man because of his lineage or high-born mother. If he is full of impeding attachments, he is just a supercilious man. But who is free from impediments and clinging -- him do I call a holy man.

* "Pali Canon Online 26 Holy Man, Dhamma" http://www.palicanon.org/index.php/sutta-pitaka/khuddaka-nikaya/99-dhammapada/846-dhp-xxvi-brahmanavagga-the-holy-man

Gautama Buddha's statues present typically 3 types of hairstyles.
(A) Gandhara Style
Gautama Buddha's statues would be firstly created in Gandhara, northwest India around 100 CE supposedly inspired by European statues. Gandhara Buddha statues present European style Buddha in topknot hairstyle.
(B) Mathura Style
Gautama Buddha's statues would be secondly created in Mathura, north-central India possibly around 200 CE. Mathura Buddha statues present Asian style Gautama Buddha in like topknot hairstyle.
(C) Later Matted Style
Thirdly, Gautama Buddha's statues would be created in various areas including Lumbini, Bodhgaya, and other countries after 500 CE. The later Gautama Buddha's statues present Asian and sometimes corpulent style Buddha with short matted (frizzy) hair and a lump on the head.

Among these styles, the most likely true image of Gautama Buddha would be (B) Mathura style. Since Gautama Buddha was born in Lumbini, the face should be like (B) or (C), which were created rather near Lumbini. (A) is excessively Europeanized.
Then image of (B) Mathura Style correctly presents a piece of cloth holding the head and bound at the top of the head. (Mathura style's knot at the top of the head is the knot of a piece of cloth.)


(A) Image of Buddha created in Gandhara around 100 CE
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gandhara_Buddha_(tnm).jpeg


(B) Image of Buddha created in Mathura supposedly around 200 CE
*Attribution: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Inscribed_Seated_Buddha_Image_in_Abhaya_Mudra_-_Kushan_Period_-_Katra_Keshav_Dev_-_ACCN_A-1_-_Government_Museum_-_Mathura_2013-02-24_5972.JPG


(C-1) Image of Buddha created near Lumbini around 500 CE
*Attribution: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buddha_from_Sarnath.jpg


(C-2) Image of Buddha created near Bodhgaya around 1000 CE
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Astasahasrika_Prajnaparamita_Victory_Over_Mara.jpeg

In contrast, (C) Later Matted Style's short matted (frizzy) hair came from the 32 Signs of the Great Man from the Digha Nikaya, which would be edited later than Sutta Nipata.
* "Physical Ccharacteristics of the Buddha in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_characteristics_of_the_Buddha


Buddhist Monks with Shaved Heads
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:RatoMonks.jpg






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