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2.1.13 Dating

2.1.13.1 Rael's Claims

According to Rael, Elohim first visited the Earth 25,000 years ago and started genetic manipulation 22,000 years ago. Rael says genetic manipulation by the Elohim may not be the first genetic manipulation on the Earth.

2.1.13.2 Consideration for Dating

2.1.13.2.1 Possible Intervention

Traditional scientists on the Earth claim life appeared on the Earth some 4,000,000,000 years ago. They claim it based on their age determination mostly through radiometric dating. If extraterrestrials have visited the Earth as UFO sightings imply, they had enough time and resource to mislead humans' dating. It's a simple task for them to alter radioactive properties of substances on the Earth in advance. Evolutionists don't refer to the possible intervention of extraterrestrials or just say that their planet seems so far.

2.1.13.2.2 Absolute Dating

For reference, the ways of absolute dating are as follows. Radioactive dating, particularly radiocarbon dating, is a typical method of absolute dating.
* "Radioactive Dating in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolute_dating
* "Radiometric Dating in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiometric_dating
* Radiocarbon Dating in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiocarbon_dating
A carbon atom has 6 protons, basically 6 electrons, and usually 6 neutrons. However, number of neutrons can differ. Atoms with different number of neutrons are called "isotopes." There are normally 3 kinds of carbon isotopes, in the environment of present-day on the Earth.
When number of neutrons is 6, the atomic mass is roughly 6+6=12 then called "carbon-12." When number of neutrons is 7, the atomic mass is roughly 6+7=13 then called "carbon-13." When number of neutrons is 8, the atomic mass is roughly 6+8=14 then called "carbon-14." Their abundance present-day on the Earth is carbon-12: 98.93% carbon-13: 1.07% carbon-14: 1/10,000,000,000 % (=1/1,000,000,000,000)
Carbon-12 and carbon-13 are stable isotopes, which don't autonomously cause radioactive decay. Carbon-14 is a radioactive isotope, which autonomously cause radioactive decay. Radioactive decay of carbon-14 is mostly β decay. β decay changes a neutron into a proton (emitting an electron). Then carbon-14, which consists of 6 protons and 8 neutrons, changes into nitrogen, which consists of 7 protons and 7 neutrons.
However, β decay of carbon-14 is a rare event. If there are two carbon-14s, β decay would occur once per 5,730 years. One of two carbon-14s would change into a nitrogen during 5,730 years. "Half-life" is the period of time while the amount of a substance is reduced to half through its decay. Then the half-life of carbon-14 is 5,730 years.
Thus carbon-14 is anyway reduced through its decay while neutrons come from the universe as cosmic ray change nitrogens into carbon-14s far up in the sky. A high speed neutron changes a proton into a neutron far up in the sky and generated carbon-14s diffuse on the Earth. When the amount of carbon-14 reduction through autonomous decay and the increase by cosmic ray are balanced, abundance of carbon-14 gets stable. Scientists assume it stable on the Earth. Since living things on the Earth take carbons from the environment mostly as food or photosynthesis, abundance of carbon-14 in living things is equal to that of the environment during their lives. However, when the living things die, intake or circulation of carbons stops and just the reduction of carbon-14s through decay occurs in the dead bodies. If the abundance of carbon-14 in a fossil is 1/8 of present-day environment, the fossil is dated 5,730 x 3 = 17,190 years ago. (Scientists slightly modify the method considering other circumstances, to be precise.)
However, they don't consider the possible intervention of extraterrestrials. If extraterrestrials have taken some steps such as reducing radioactive substances including carbon-14, dating is misled.
The other typical method is "potassium-argon dating," while it amounts to much the same thing.
* "Potassium-Argon Dating in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%E2%80%93Ar_dating




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