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2.3.1 Introduction and Summary about the Identification of the Children of Israel

Children of Israel (Jacob) are frequently called out and so blessed by Yahweh. On the other hand, they were scattered, while prophesied to be collected someday. However, their whereabouts are uncertain. Their whereabouts should be clarified.
*"But now, thus says the Lord, who created you, O Jacob, And He who formed you, O Israel: 'Fear not, for I have redeemed you; I have called you by your name; You are Mine. When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; And through the rivers, they shall not overflow you. When you walk through the fire, you shall not be burned, Nor shall the flame scorch you. For I am the Lord your God, The Holy One of Israel, your Savior; I gave Egypt for your ransom, Ethiopia and Seba in your place. Since you were precious in My sight, You have been honored, And I have loved you; Therefore I will give men for you, And people for your life. Fear not, for I am with you; I will bring your descendants from the east, And gather you from the west; I will say to the north, "Give them up!" And to the south, "Do not keep them back!" Bring My sons from afar, And My daughters from the ends of the earth -Everyone who is called by My name, Whom I have created for My glory; I have formed him, yes, I have made him' " (Isa 43:1-7).
Ezekiel refers to the unification of Judah and Ephraim through descendants of David.
*"Again the word of the Lord came to me, saying, 'As for you, son of man, take a stick for yourself and write on it: "For Judah and for the children of Israel, his companions." Then take another stick and write on it, "For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel, his companions." Then join them one to another for yourself into one stick, and they will become one in your hand. And when the children of your people speak to you, saying, "Will you not show us what you mean by these?"-say to them, "Thus says the Lord God: 'Surely I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions; and I will join them with it, with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they will be one in My hand.' " And the sticks on which you write will be in your hand before their eyes. Then say to them, "Thus says the Lord God: 'Surely I will take the children of Israel from among the nations, wherever they have gone, and will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land; and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king over them all; they shall no longer be two nations, nor shall they ever be divided into two kingdoms again. They shall not defile themselves anymore with their idols, nor with their detestable things, nor with any of their transgressions; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. Then they shall be My people, and I will be their God. David My servant shall be king over them, and they shall all have one shepherd; they shall also walk in My judgments and observe My statutes, and do them. Then they shall dwell in the land that I have given to Jacob My servant, where your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell there, they, their children, and their children's children, forever; and My servant David shall be their prince forever. Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them, and it shall be an everlasting covenant with them; I will establish them and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary in their midst forevermore. My tabernacle also shall be with them; indeed I will be their God, and they shall be My people. The nations also will know that I, the Lord, sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forevermore' " ' " (Eze 37:15-28).

Identification of the Children of Israel has been considered from biblical, literal, and cultural viewpoints. At this point, it should be noted that the 2 major tribes of Israel are Judah and Ephraim. The tribe of Judah seems positioned as "ruler" and the tribe of Ephraim seems positioned as "birthright."
On the other hand, recent DNA science found that paternal or material ancestry could be traced through Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA. DNA data of various populations were collected and the knowledge from a viewpoint of DNA science appeared. However, the result was not so clear to clarify the issue.
Still, mixed viewpoints of biblical, literal, cultural, and genetic seem improved the issue.
The 3 major topics would be
(1) whether legitimacy of population of Israel could be clarified through present-day DNA science.
(2) whether Ashkenazi Jewish population could be the legitimate Children of Israel from a viewpoint of present-day DNA science,
(3) the place the 10 lost tribes particularly descendants of Ephraim dwell.
Conclusions are
(1) Present-day DNA science is somewhat helpful to trace lineages. However, there are limitations. Present-day DNA science could find neither clear legitimacy nor illegitimacy of Jewish population. For example, present-day DNA science couldn't distinguish Jewish population from Arabic population.
(2) Ashkenazi Jewish population (from Eastern Europe) seem consisting of Jewish population from the west and people of Judaism from the south (through Caucasus). Present-day DNA science couldn't find clear origin, legitimacy, or illegitimacy of Ashkenazi Jewish population from Eastern Europe.
(3) Japanese males might be the descendants of Ephraim from the west because DNAs of Japanese males show unusual distribution and historical literature matches such assumption.

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