Disclaimer: This is Totally Untrue.


2.3.2 Genetic Tracing

DNA science found out that Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA analysis is useful for identifying paternal and maternal ancestry.
Sequences of Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA are categorized as "haplogroups." A haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes. A haplotype is a compound word from "haploid genotype." Haploid is the antonym of diploid. As mentioned before, a cell nucleus of humans originally includes similar but somewhat different 2 sets of 23 DNAs. 23 DNAs (one set) from the mother and 23 DNAs (the other set) from the father. This is called "diploid." In contrast to the concept of "diploid," "haploid" means one set of DNAs. Then "haploid genotype" means type of genetics consisting of one set of DNAs from the mother or from the father.
Y-DNA doesn't have its counterpart from the mother. Mitochondrial DNA doesn't have its counterpart from the father. Then Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA could be called haploid. Y-DNAs and mitochondrial DNAs are categorized as "haploid genotype," consequently, "haplogroup."
Sequences of Y-DNA are categorized as Y-DNA haplogroups. An outline of the categorization can be seen as a haplogroup tree in the following website.
* "Human Y-DNA Haplogroups in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Y-chromosome_DNA_haplogroups
Sequences of mitochondrial DNA are categorized as mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. An outline of the categorization can be seen as a haplogroup tree in the following wrbsite.
* "Human Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_mitochondrial_DNA_haplogroup
Distribution of Y-DNA haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA in the world could be seen in the following website. Click the thumbnail map of the following website to download the haplogroup maps of the world.
* "World Haplogroup Map Illinois" http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mcdonald/
Details could be seen in the following websites.
* "Y-DNA Haplogroups by Ethnic Groups in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-DNA_haplogroups_by_ethnic_groups
* "Y-Chromosome Haplogroups by Populations in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-chromosome_haplogroups_by_populations
* "Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups by Populations in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MtDna_haplogroups_by_populations






Return to the Home Page