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2.3.3 Grouping of the Jewish Population

Legitimate descendants of the Jewish population or Children of Israel have been investigated through genetic analysis.
However, prior to this topic, definition or grouping of the Jewish population and history should be straightened, while past events are more or less presumptions anyway.

The Jewish population is said to have some 13,400,000 as of 2010 CE.
* "JPPI World Jewish Population" http://jppi.org.il/news/71/58/World-Jewish-Population/
* "Jewish Population in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jewish_population
The major countries they live are the USA and Israel as of 2010 CE. It is said that some 6,540,000 are in the USA, some 5,850,000 are in Israel, and thirdly some 500,000 are in France as of 2010 CE.

The Jewish population is commonly roughly categorized into 3 categories. the Ashkenazi Jewish population (Ashkenazim), the Sephardi Jewish population (Sephardim), and the Mizrahi Jewish population (Mizrahim).
Ashkenazi Jewish are traditionally said to have descended from medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine or the Rhineland in the west of present-day Germany, since "Ashkenazi" originally means "ancient German (person)" in Hebrew. They are some 10,000,000 as of 2010 CE, some 80% of the Jewish population in the world, though they were said to be merely 3% of the Jewish population in the 11th century CE. This unusual population increase gives rise to suspicion on the traditional theory that Ashkenazi Jewish descended from the Rhineland.
Sephardi Jewish are said to have descended from the Jewish population ever lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th century CE (before the expulsion through Alhambra Decree (1492 CE)). "Sephardi" originally means "Spanish (person)" in Hebrew. They are some 2,000,000-2,500,000 as of 2010 CE, some 15% of the Jewidh population in the world.
However, these terms (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Mizrahi, and Jew) are quite ambiguous to be discussed. For instance, according to the traditional understanding, the population of the Kingdom of Judah included the tribe of Benjamin. Then this website suggests the following categories.

(1) Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah
First, "Jew" is ambiguous as argued "Who is a Jew." It may include converts to Judaism. The topic here is to identify the "Children of Israel (Jacob)," because they are frequently blessed by Yahweh in the Bible. Then the term employed here instead as needed is "Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah." In short, "Descendants of Judah."

(2) Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah through the Rhineland
Second, "Ashkenazi" commonly includes "Jews in Eastern Europe (including Russia)," representatively "Jews in Poland," based on the assumption that the Jewish population in Eastern Europe (including Russia) may have migrated from the Rhineland due to the pressure (persecution) by the Crusades. However, this assumption seems rather uncertain. Then the term employed here instead as needed is "Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah through the Rhineland." In short, "Descendants through the Rhineland." The population of Ashkenazi is said to be 10,000,000 as of 2010 CE. However, most of 10,000,000 are not well verified to be "Descendants through the Rhineland." "Descendants through the Rhineland" would be some 10% of them, 1,000,000. The rest of them, 9,000,000 as of 2010 CE, are "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe" as mentioned below (the fifth category below).

(3) Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah through the Iberian Peninsula
Third, "Sephardi" ambiguously sometimes includes "Mizrahi" because of the similarity of their rituals. Then the term employed here instead of "Sephardi" as needed is "Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah through the Iberian Peninsula." In short, "Descendants through the Iberian Peninsula."

(4) Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah through the Islamic World
Fourth, "Mizrahi" originally means "eastern (person)" in Hebrew. "Mizrahi" commonly seems refer to the Jewish population descended from the Jewish communities of Arab-ruled regions and adjacent. That is, the Middle East, North Africa, and the Caucasus, for example, Iraq, Syria, Iran, Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, and India. However, the definition is yet ambiguous. Because of the ambiguity, the population couldn't be determined. Then the term employed here instead as needed is "Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah whose ancestors have never settled in Europe and ever settled around North Africa, the Middle East, Caucasus, Persia, and India." In short, "Descendants through the Islamic World."

(5) Claimed Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah through Eastern Europe
Fifth, the fifth category is "the group which claims that they are Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah whose ancestors have ever settled mostly in Eastern Europe." In short, "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe." They have ironically featured through Pogrom and Holocaust. As mentioned above, 90% of so-called Ashkenazi Jews, 9,000,000 as of 2010 CE, are said to be this category. For example, the Jewish population in Poland just before WWII is said to be 3,000,000. It is said that 2,800,000 of the Jewish population in Russia migrated to the USA from 1880 CE through 1920 CE to avoid the pogrom. (The USA once restricted the migration since 1924 CE.) 250,000 of the Jewish population from Germany and Austria migrated to the USA just after 1933 CE. 500,000 Jewish population moved from the USSR to Israel during 1990-1993 CE. On the other hand, origin of this "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe" is uncertain. As mentioned above, the traditional theory assumes that they have migrated from the Rhineland due to the persecution by the Crusades. However, colonies in the Rhineland were too small to support the large population in Eastern Europe. In addition, there is no historical materials to exclude the migration from the south. Then Arthur Koestler claimed the origin of it as "Descendants of Khazars converted to Judaism" in "The Thirteenth Tribe" (1976 CE) succeeding Abraham Poliak.
* "The Thirteenth Tribe in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Thirteenth_Tribe
Shlomo Sand succeeded it in "The Invention of the Jewish People" in 2008 CE. He rather claims the Palestinian Arabs descend from the Jewish population (the Kingdom of Judah).
* "The Invention of the Jewish People in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Invention_of_the_Jewish_People

(6) The 10 Lost Tribes of Israel
Sixth, lastly in addition, the 10 Lost Tribes of Israel should be outlined, though they are not "Descendants of the Kingdom of Judah." According to the Bible, Children of Israel (Jacob) once founded the United Kingdom of Israel after the era of Judges (leaders). The first king was Saul. The second king was David (tribe of Judah). The third king was Solomon (the second son of David). However, after the death of Solomon, 12 tribes divided into 2 groups. 10 tribes consisting of Ephraim, Manasseh, and so forth founded the Northern Kingdom of Israel. The capital was Samaria.
* "Kingdom of Israel in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Israel_(Samaria)
2 tribes consisting of Judah and Benjamin founded the Southern Kingdom of Judah. The capital was Jerusalem.
* "Kingdom of Judah in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Judah
The Northern Kingdom of Israel was ruined by Assyria and the population of the Northern Kingdom of Israel was moved to Nineveh (Assyrian Captivity). Nineveh located on the northeast bank of the upstream region of the Tigris, the opposite bank of present-day Mosul. Nineveh and Mosul are adjacent to Arbil (Erbil), the capital of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan, which included the Kurdish Jewish population. Descendants of the Northern 10 tribes have been missing since then and called the 10 Lost Tribes of Israel.
The Kurdish Jewish population is said to have originated in arrival of the Israelites through Assyrian conquest of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. So they could be in a sense a part of the 10 Lost Tribes of Israel. (They are called Kurdish "Jews." However, most of the Northern Kingdom of Israel were not naturally "Jews" from the Southern Kingdom of Judah to be precise though.)
* "Assyrian Captivity in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assyrian_captivity_of_Israel
* "Ten Lost Tribes of Israel in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ten_Lost_Tribes
* "Nineveh in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nineveh
* "Iraqi Kurdistan in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iraqi_Kurdistan
* "Kurdish Jews in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurdish_Jews






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