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2.3.4 History of the Children of Israel (until the Assyrian Captivity)

2.3.4.1 Jacob in Harran

History of the Children of Israel begins with Jacob's encounter with Rachel.
Isaac and Rebecca's (fraternal) twin sons were Esau (the elder) and Jacob (the younger) on bad terms. Jacob received Isaac's blessing (birthright) by deception. Then Jacob fled to Harran for fear of Esau's revenge leaning on his uncle Laban (Rebecca's elder brother). Laban's younger daughter Rachel was beautiful and Jacob loved her. Jacob proposed to marry her. However, Laban plotted to make Jacob marry the elder sister Leah by deception. Laban requested to marry both the elder sister Leah and the younger Rachel. Jacob married both Leah the elder and Rachel the younger. Jacob loved Rachel and unloved Leah.

However, the 1st born (1st son) of Jacob was "Ruben" of Leah. Ruben means "see (behold) son," since Leah thought the child as the proof of Jacob's love.

The 2nd born (2nd son) of Jacob was "Simeon" of Leah. The meaning of Simeon might be "he has heard," since she believed Yahweh has heard her suffering not to be loved by Jacob. Simeon later confronted Joseph (Rachel's son), because Joseph was favored by Jacob.

The 3rd born (3rd son) of Jacob was "Levi" of Leah. It is controversially said that the meaning of "Levi" is "to join (Jacob will join)" or just "priest," and so on.

The 4th born (4th son) of Jacob was "Judah" of Leah. The meaning of "Judah" is "praise Yahweh," since Leah praised Yahweh for her 4 sons.

The 5th born (5th son) of Jacob was Dan of Bilhah. Bilhah was the maid (servant) of Rachel. Rachel made her maid (servant) bear Jacob's child instead of her. The meaning of "Dan" is "judge," since Rachel thought it was the result of Yahweh's judge considering her sterility.

The 6th born (6th son) of Jacob was Naphtali of Bilhah. The meaning of Naphtali is "wrestling" or "struggle," since Rachel thought having Jacob's child was wrestling or a struggle.

The 7th born (7th son) of Jacob was Gad of Zilpah. Zilpah was the maid (servant) of Leah. Leah made her maid (servant) bear Jacob's child instead of her. It is controversially said that the meaning of Gad is "fortune," "troop (to gain Jacob's love)," or derived from the name of deity called "Gad."

The 8th born (8th son) of Jacob was Asher of Zilpah. The meaning of Asher is "happy," since Zilpah thought it happy.

The 9th born (9th son) of Jacob was Issachar of Leah. The meaning of Issachar is "man of hire (wage or reward)," since Leah thought it was the reward of her servant offer to Jacob.

The 10th born (10th son) of Jacob was Zebulun of Leah. The meaning of "Zebulun" is "dwelling," since Leah thought Jacob would dwell with her.

The 11th born (1st and last daughter) of Jacob was Dinah of Leah. The meaning of "Dinah" is "judged." The context of the name is unknown.

The 12th born (11th son) of Jacob was Joseph of Rachel. The meaning of "Joseph" is "increaser," since Rachel thought Yahweh should add another son.

2.3.4.2 Jacob in Canaan

Jacob, his family, and servants moved from Harran to Canaan. On the way to Canaan, they reached a ford of the Jabbok River, Jacob send out his family and servants across the river. After sending them out, Jacob was left alone at night on the riverside, someone tackled Jacob. It was an angel or God. Jacob wrestled with the angel or God and was named "Israel." The meaning of "Israel" is "striven with God (Eloah)," since he strove with God.

One day in Canaan when Dinah went out, Shechem the prince of the land seized, violated Dinah, and proposed to marry her. However, Simeon and Levi deceived Shechem and destroyed his city and killed people of the city including Shechem in revenge. Jacob (Israel) was displeased with this revenge for fear of inhabitants' revenge. This might be a wrongdoing of Simeon and Levi.

The 13th (last) born (12th youngest son) was Benjamin of Rachel in Canaan. Rachel suffered from this difficult birth, named him "Ben-Oni" (son of my sorrow or pain), and died. Jacob renamed him Benjamin. The meaning of "Benjamin" is "son of right" or "son of south (Canaan)," while the context is controversial.

Later, Ruben lay with Bilhah. This was a wrongdoing of Ruben.

Jacob (Israel) most loved Joseph, since Joseph was the son of his old age. In contrast, his brothers hated Joseph because of Jacob's partiality.
One day, Joseph was looking for his brothers. Then an unknown man told him where they were. (The unknown man could be interpreted as an angel.) However, his brothers (supposedly mostly Simeon and Levi) plotted to kill Joseph. (This was a wrongdoing of Simeon and Levi.) On the other hand, Ruben heard it and proposed just to cast Joseph into a pit intending to save Joseph afterward. (This would be a good deed of Ruben.) Brothers caught Joseph, casted him into a pit, waited and saw. Subsequently, they saw a caravan heading to Egypt. Judah proposed to sell Joseph to the caravan intending to save Joseph. (This was a good deed of Judah.) Then Joseph was sold, taken to Egypt, sold to an officer of Egypt, and became a powerful man in Egypt.

The subsequent story in Genesis is "Judah and Tamar," which would be associated with the genealogy of the tribe of Judah. Judah became to have 3 sons.
The 1st born was "Er," the 2nd born was "Onan," and the 3rd born was "Shelah." The wife of Er was Tamar.
However, Er was wicked and God killed him.
The 2nd born Onan married Tamar in accordance with custom. However, Onan wouldn't have a child. Then God killed him.
The 3rd born Shelah was too young to marry, Judah ordered Tamar wait for his growth as a widow in her father's house, she did so. However, subsequently Tamar knew Judah woud not let them marry though Shelah grew up. Judah supposed Shelah would die like his brothers if he marry Tamar. Then she pretended as a harlot, lay with Judah, and conceived. She bore twins, Perez and Zerah.
On the other hand, Shelah had 6 sons, Er (the father of Lecah: named after Shelah's brother), Laadah, Jokim, Joash, Saraph, and Jashubi-Lehem.
Consequently, Perez descends to David, Solomon, and Jesus. Perez was the main stream of the tribe of Judah.

2.3.4.3 Jacob in Egypt

Subsequently, Jacob and his family in Canaan suffered from famine, visited Egypt to buy corn. Joseph the high official in Egypt found them and saved inviting them to Egypt.
The number of the members of Jacob's family at that time was some 70.

Jacob in Egypt left prophecies involving descendants of 12 sons.

*"And Jacob called his sons and said, 'Gather together, that I may tell you what shall befall you in the last days:
Gather together and hear, you sons of Jacob,
And listen to Israel your father.

Reuben, you are my firstborn, My might and the beginning of my strength, The excellency of dignity and the excellency of power. Unstable as water, you shall not excel, Because you went up to your father's bed; Then you defiled it- He went up to my couch.

Simeon and Levi are brothers; Instruments of cruelty are in their dwelling place. Let not my soul enter their council; Let not my honor be united to their assembly; For in their anger they slew a man, And in their self-will they hamstrung an ox. Cursed be their anger, for it is fierce; And their wrath, for it is cruel! I will divide them in Jacob And scatter them in Israel.

Judah, you are he whom your brothers shall praise; Your hand shall be on the neck of your enemies; Your father's children shall bow down before you. Judah is a lion's whelp; From the prey, my son, you have gone up. He bows down, he lies down as a lion; And as a lion, who shall rouse him? The scepter shall not depart from Judah, Nor a lawgiver from between his feet, Until Shiloh comes; And to Him shall be the obedience of the people. Binding his donkey to the vine, And his donkey's colt to the choice vine, He washed his garments in wine, And his clothes in the blood of grapes. His eyes are darker than wine, And his teeth whiter than milk.

Zebulun shall dwell by the haven of the sea; He shall become a haven for ships, And his border shall adjoin Sidon.

Issachar is a strong donkey, Lying down between two burdens; He saw that rest was good, And that the land was pleasant; He bowed his shoulder to bear a burden, And became a band of slaves.

Dan shall judge his people As one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, A viper by the path, That bites the horse's heels So that its rider shall fall backward. I have waited for your salvation, O LORD!

Gad, a troop shall tramp upon him, But he shall triumph at last.

Bread from Asher shall be rich, And he shall yield royal dainties.

Naphtali is a deer let loose; He uses beautiful words.

Joseph is a fruitful bough, A fruitful bough by a well; His branches run over the wall. The archers have bitterly grieved him, Shot at him and hated him. But his bow remained in strength, And the arms of his hands were made strong By the hands of the Mighty God of Jacob (From there is the Shepherd, the Stone of Israel), By the God of your father who will help you, And by the Almighty who will bless you With blessings of heaven above, Blessings of the deep that lies beneath, Blessings of the breasts and of the womb. The blessings of your father Have excelled the blessings of my ancestors, Up to the utmost bound of the everlasting hills. They shall be on the head of Joseph, And on the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brothers.

Benjamin is a ravenous wolf; In the morning he shall devour the prey, And at night he shall divide the spoil.'

All these are the twelve tribes of Israel, and this is what their father spoke to them. And he blessed them; he blessed each one according to his own blessing" (Gen 49:1-28).


The most cursed tribes in these prophecies would be Simeon and Levi. They seem cursed because of the intention of killing Joseph. Then it should be noted Moses and Aaron were not originally blessed.
The next cursed tribes would be Ruben, Dan, and Issachar. Ruben seems cursed because of the adultery with Bilhah. The context around Dan and Issachar is unclear, while they are not blessed anyway.

The 2 major significant tribes in these prophecies would be Joseph and Judah.
The most blessed seems Joseph. The tribe of Joseph seems positioned to be the tribe of blessing and the "birthright."
The tribe of Judah seems positioned to be the tribe of "ruler."
(Jacob most loved Rachel and Joseph was her son. In addition, Joseph supported Jacob's family in Egypt. Judah once saved Joseph selling him to a caravan. Benjamin was Rachel's son like Joseph. However, his birth resulted Rachel's death.)
*"Now the sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel—he was indeed the firstborn, but because he defiled his father's bed, his birthright was given to the sons of Joseph, the son of Israel, so that the genealogy is not listed according to the birthright; yet Judah prevailed over his brothers, and from him came a ruler, although the birthright was Joseph's—" (1Ch 5:1-2).

On the other hand, Jacob adopted Manasseh and Ephraim. In addition, Jacob designated Ephraim as the firstborn.
Then Ephraim seems inherited the "birthright" of Jacob (Israel).
*"And now your two sons, Ephraim and Manasseh, who were born to you in the land of Egypt before I came to you in Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, they shall be mine. Your offspring whom you beget after them shall be yours; they will be called by the name of their brothers in their inheritance" (Gen 48:5-6).
*"Then Israel saw Joseph's sons, and said, 'Who are these?' And Joseph said to his father, 'They are my sons, whom God has given me in this place.' And he said, 'Please bring them to me, and I will bless them.' Now the eyes of Israel were dim with age, so that he could not see. Then Joseph brought them near him, and he kissed them and embraced them. And Israel said to Joseph, 'I had not thought to see your face; but in fact, God has also shown me your offspring!' So Joseph brought them from beside his knees, and he bowed down with his face to the earth. And Joseph took them both, Ephraim with his right hand toward Israel's left hand, and Manasseh with his left hand toward Israel's right hand, and brought them near him. Then Israel stretched out his right hand and laid it on Ephraim's head, who was the younger, and his left hand on Manasseh's head, guiding his hands knowingly, for Manasseh was the firstborn. And he blessed Joseph, and said: 'God, before whom my fathers Abraham and Isaac walked, The God who has fed me all my life long to this day, The Angel who has redeemed me from all evil, Bless the lads; Let my name be named upon them, And the name of my fathers Abraham and Isaac; And let them grow into a multitude in the midst of the earth.'
Now when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand on the head of Ephraim, it displeased him; so he took hold of his father's hand to remove it from Ephraim’s head to Manasseh's head. And Joseph said to his father, 'Not so, my father, for this one is the firstborn; put your right hand on his head.' But his father refused and said, 'I know, my son, I know. He also shall become a people, and he also shall be great; but truly his younger brother shall be greater than he, and his descendants shall become a multitude of nations.' So he blessed them that day, saying, 'By you Israel will bless, saying, "May God make you as Ephraim and as Manasseh!"' And thus he set Ephraim before Manasseh" (Gen 48:8-20).
*" 'They shall come with weeping, And with supplications I will lead them. I will cause them to walk by the rivers of waters, In a straight way in which they shall not stumble; For I am a Father to Israel, And Ephraim is My firstborn' " (Jer 31:9)

2.3.4.4 History of the Children of Israel (Israelites in the Desert)

Generations passed, Egyptian people forgot Joseph and Pharaoh's approval of their dwelling, and the descendants of Israel (Jacob) fell into slavery in Egypt. However, Moses, a Levite, was inspired by Yahweh to make the Israelites escape from Egypt to Canaan. (possibly ca. 1,400 BCE) They escaped from Egypt, but wandered about a desert.
According to the Bible (Numbers 1-2), the population of males 20 years old and over who are able to go to war at that time is recorded as follows.
The tribe of Ruben 46,500
The tribe of Simeon 59,300
The tribe of Gad 45,650
The tribe of Judah 74,600
The tribe of Issachar 54,400
The tribe of Zebulun 57,400
The tribe of Ephraim 40,500
The tribe of Manasseh 32,200
The tribe of Benjamin 35,400
The tribe of Dan 62,700
The tribe of Asher 41,500
The tribe of Naphtali 53,400
603,550 in all
The males 20 years old and over of the tribe of Levi were unnumbered because they were designated to keep charge of the tabernacle. On the other hand, the males of the tribe of Levi at the time were separately counted to be 22,000 in Numbers 3:39.
Then the total population of the Israelites at that time including Levites, females, children, and sick people could be some 1,800,000. (There are skeptic opinions involving the above numbers, since they are rather large compared with other numerical description in the Bible.)

Then Yahweh ordered Moses to dispatch 12 spies representing 12 tribes to the land of Canaan. (Meaning of 12 tribes varies in some places, while the 12 characters are included in Jacob's 12 sons, Manasseh, and Ephraim anyway. 12 tribes in this case include Manasseh and Ephraim, excluding Levi (and Joseph).)
*"And the Lord spoke to Moses, saying, Send men to spy out the land of Canaan, which I am giving to the children of Israel; from each tribe of their fathers you shall send a man, every one a leader among them. So Moses sent them from the Wilderness of Paran according to the command of the Lord, all of them men who were heads of the children of Israel.
Now these were their names:
from the tribe of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur;
from the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son of Hori;
from the tribe of Judah, Caleb the son of Jephunneh;
from the tribe of Issachar, Igal the son of Joseph;
from the tribe of Ephraim, Hoshea the son of Nun;
from the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son of Raphu;
from the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel the son of Sodi;
from the tribe of Joseph, that is, from the tribe of Manasseh, Gaddi the son of Susi;
from the tribe of Dan, Ammiel the son of Gemalli;
from the tribe of Asher, Sethur the son of Michael;
from the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi the son of Vophsi;
from the tribe of Gad, Geuel the son of Machi" (Num 13:1-15).
After the 40 days' reconnaissance, Caleb of the tribe of Judah and Hoshea (also called Joshua) of the tribe of Ephraim with faith in Yahweh claimed to advance to Canaan in spite of the formidable inhabitants. However, the other 10 spies claimed to give up advancing because of less faith in Yahweh, the Israelites accepted to give up.
Then Yahweh cursed the people except Caleb and Hoshea (Joshua), making the Israelites wander about the desert for more 40 years.

The second census took place after the 40 years.
According to the Bible (Numbers 26), the population of males 20 years old and over who are able to go to war at that time is recorded as follows.
The tribe of Ruben 43,730
The tribe of Simeon 22,200
The tribe of Gad 40,500
The tribe of Judah 76,500
The tribe of Issachar 64,300
The tribe of Zebulun 60,500
The tribe of Manasseh 52,700
The tribe of Ephraim 32,500
The tribe of Benjamin 45,600
The tribe of Dan 64,400
The tribe of Asher 53,400
The tribe of Naphtali 45,400
601,730 in all
The males 20 years old and over of the tribe of Levi were unnumbered as before. On the other hand, the males of the tribe of Levi at the time were separately counted to be 23,000 in Numbers 26:62.

Subsequently, Moses left prophecies before his death in the desert.

*"Now this is the blessing with which Moses the man of God blessed the children of Israel before his death. And he said:
'The LORD came from Sinai, And dawned on them from Seir; He shone forth from Mount Paran, And He came with ten thousands of saints; From His right hand Came a fiery law for them. Yes, He loves the people; All His saints are in Your hand; They sit down at Your feet; Everyone receives Your words. Moses commanded a law for us, A heritage of the congregation of Jacob. And He was King in Jeshurun, When the leaders of the people were gathered, All the tribes of Israel together.

Let Reuben live, and not die, Nor let his men be few.'

And this he said of Judah:
'Hear, LORD, the voice of Judah, And bring him to his people; Let his hands be sufficient for him, And may You be a help against his enemies.'

And of Levi he said:
'Let Your Thummim and Your Urim be with Your holy one, Whom You tested at Massah, And with whom You contended at the waters of Meribah, Who says of his father and mother, "I have not seen them"; Nor did he acknowledge his brothers, Or know his own children; For they have observed Your word And kept Your covenant. They shall teach Jacob Your judgments, And Israel Your law. They shall put incense before You, And a whole burnt sacrifice on Your altar. Bless his substance, LORD, And accept the work of his hands; Strike the loins of those who rise against him, And of those who hate him, that they rise not again.'

Of Benjamin he said:
'The beloved of the LORD shall dwell in safety by Him, Who shelters him all the day long; And he shall dwell between His shoulders.'

And of Joseph he said:
'Blessed of the LORD is his land, With the precious things of heaven, with the dew, And the deep lying beneath, With the precious fruits of the sun, With the precious produce of the months, With the best things of the ancient mountains, With the precious things of the everlasting hills, With the precious things of the earth and its fullness, And the favor of Him who dwelt in the bush. Let the blessing come "on the head of Joseph, And on the crown of the head of him who was separate from his brothers." His glory is like a firstborn bull, And his horns like the horns of the wild ox; Together with them He shall push the peoples To the ends of the earth; They are the ten thousands of Ephraim, And they are the thousands of Manasseh.'

And of Zebulun he said:
'Rejoice, Zebulun, in your going out, And Issachar in your tents! They shall call the peoples to the mountain; There they shall offer sacrifices of righteousness; For they shall partake of the abundance of the seas And of treasures hidden in the sand.'

And of Gad he said:
'Blessed is he who enlarges Gad; He dwells as a lion, And tears the arm and the crown of his head. He provided the first part for himself, 21 Because a lawgiver's portion was reserved there. He came with the heads of the people; He administered the justice of the LORD, And His judgments with Israel.'

And of Dan he said:
'Dan is a lion’s whelp; He shall leap from Bashan.'

And of Naphtali he said:
'O Naphtali, satisfied with favor, And full of the blessing of the LORD, Possess the west and the south.'

And of Asher he said:
'Asher is most blessed of sons; Let him be favored by his brothers, And let him dip his foot in oil. Your sandals shall be iron and bronze; As your days, so shall your strength be.

There is no one like the God of Jeshurun, Who rides the heavens to help you, And in His excellency on the clouds. The eternal God is your refuge, And underneath are the everlasting arms; He will thrust out the enemy from before you, And will say, "Destroy!" Then Israel shall dwell in safety, The fountain of Jacob alone, In a land of grain and new wine; His heavens shall also drop dew. Happy are you, O Israel! Who is like you, a people saved by the LORD, The shield of your help And the sword of your majesty! Your enemies shall submit to you, And you shall tread down their high places' " (Deu 33:1-29).


The prophecy for Ruben is so short, Simeon is ignored, then these prophecies could be interpreted in accordance with abundance of words. The tribe of Joseph seems naturally highly evaluated, since Joshua was the tribe of Ephraim. The tribe of Levi seems somewhat recovered the evaluation due to services of Moses. The tribe of Judah seems not so particularly blessed in spite of Caleb's good deed. The tribe of Issachar is ignored.

After the death of Moses, Yahweh appointed Joshua the leader of the Israelites to advance and conquer Canaan.

In summary, the main characters among the tribes are the tribe of Ephraim (or Joseph) holding the birthright, and the tribe of Judah positioned to be the ruler. (It naturally accords with Isaiah's prophecy involving the unified kingdom of Judah and Ephraim.) Then the tribe of Ephraim holding the birthright should be somewhere in great numbers.

2.3.4.5 United Kingdom of Israel

The Israelites in Canaan defeated enemies. After the era of Judges (charismatic leaders), the Israelites founded ancient Unified Kingdom of Israel. Yahweh chose Saul (the tribe of Benjamin) as the first king (1026 BCE).
* "Kingdom of Israel in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Israel_(united_monarchy)
David (the tribe of Judah) was chosen by Yahweh and succeeded the kingdom. However, David committed adultery with Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the Hittite. Bathsheba got pregnant, David plotted to kill Uriah, married Bathsheba, and a son was born.
Yahweh cursed David's family through prophecies of Nathan.
For one thing, the first born of Bathsheba died.
(In contrast, Bathsheba bore the second son Solomon and he was favored by Yahweh.)
However Secondly, David's first son Amnon raped his half sister Tamar and her brother (David's third son) Absalom killed Amnon in revenge.
Thirdly, Absalom rebelled, occupied Jerusalem, and raped 10 concubines of David in the sight of all Israel.
Subsequently, Absalom was killed by David's general.

David took a census. The context was as follows.
*"Again the anger of the LORD was aroused against Israel, and He moved David against them to say, 'Go, number Israel and Judah.' So the king said to Joab the commander of the army who was with him, “Now go throughout all the tribes of Israel, from Dan to Beersheba, and count the people, that I may know the number of the people" (2Sa 24:1-2).
*"Then Joab gave the sum of the number of the people to the king. And there were in Israel eight hundred thousand valiant men who drew the sword, and the men of Judah were five hundred thousand men" (2Sa 24:9).
*"Then Joab gave the sum of the number of the people to David. All Israel had one million one hundred thousand men who drew the sword, and Judah had four hundred and seventy thousand men who drew the sword. But he did not count Levi and Benjamin among them, for the king’s word was abominable to Joab. And God was displeased with this thing; therefore He struck Israel" (1Ch 21:5-7).

Solomon succeeded the kingdom. Because Solomon requested wisdom of Yahweh, Solomon is featured by his wisdom. He constructed the First Temple at Jerusalem and placed the Ark of the Covenant. On the other hand, he had 700 wives and 300 concubines mostly of foreign princesses. Diplomatic strategy may account for a large number of wives. However, he devoted himself to paganism and idolatry led by his heathen wives. Then Yahweh told Solomon to tear the kingdom, but it was put off until Solomon's death for the sake of David and one tribe was added for the sake of David and Jerusalem. Yahweh seems to favor David in spite of his adultery with Bathsheba.
*"So the LORD became angry with Solomon, because his heart had turned from the LORD God of Israel, who had appeared to him twice, and had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods; but he did not keep what the LORD had commanded. Therefore the LORD said to Solomon, 'Because you have done this, and have not kept My covenant and My statutes, which I have commanded you, I will surely tear the kingdom away from you and give it to your servant. Nevertheless I will not do it in your days, for the sake of your father David; I will tear it out of the hand of your son. However I will not tear away the whole kingdom; I will give one tribe to your son for the sake of My servant David, and for the sake of Jerusalem which I have chosen'" (1Ki 11:9-13).

By the way, in contrast to Yahweh's curse on David's family, Yahweh's adherence to David seems rather incomprehensible. Then David might be Yahweh's son, not Jesse's.

2.3.4.6 Disunion

The kingdom split into 2 kingdoms, the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel and the (Southern) Kingdom of Judah.
The Kingdom of Judah consists mostly of the tribe of Judah and the tribe of Benjamin. Some of Levites joined and a little part of the other tribes may have joined the Kingdom of Judah. The tribe of Simeon also joined rather absorbed into Judah.
On the other hand, it should be noted that the main stream of the Israelites is the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel, bears the name of Israel. The (Southern) Kingdom of Judah is Judah's kingdom.
*"Now it happened at that time, when Jeroboam went out of Jerusalem, that the prophet Ahijah the Shilonite met him on the way; and he had clothed himself with a new garment, and the two were alone in the field.
Then Ahijah took hold of the new garment that was on him, and tore it into twelve pieces. And he said to Jeroboam, 'Take for yourself ten pieces, for thus says the LORD, the God of Israel: "Behold, I will tear the kingdom out of the hand of Solomon and will give ten tribes to you (but he shall have one tribe for the sake of My servant David, and for the sake of Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen out of all the tribes of Israel), because they have forsaken Me, and worshiped Ashtoreth the goddess of the Sidonians, Chemosh the god of the Moabites, and Milcom the god of the people of Ammon, and have not walked in My ways to do what is right in My eyes and keep My statutes and My judgments, as did his father David. 34 However I will not take the whole kingdom out of his hand, because I have made him ruler all the days of his life for the sake of My servant David, whom I chose because he kept My commandments and My statutes. But I will take the kingdom out of his son's hand and give it to you—ten tribes. 36 And to his son I will give one tribe, that My servant David may always have a lamp before Me in Jerusalem, the city which I have chosen for Myself, to put My name there. So I will take you, and you shall reign over all your heart desires, and you shall be king over Israel. Then it shall be, if you heed all that I command you, walk in My ways, and do what is right in My sight, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as My servant David did, then I will be with you and build for you an enduring house, as I built for David, and will give Israel to you. And I will afflict the descendants of David because of this, but not forever."'
Solomon therefore sought to kill Jeroboam. But Jeroboam arose and fled to Egypt, to Shishak king of Egypt, and was in Egypt until the death of Solomon" (1Ki 11:29-40).

Jeroboam I (the tribe of Ephraim) founded the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel in ca. 930 BCE. However, it was invaded by Neo-Assyrian Empire and ruined around 720 BCE. (On the other hand, Isaiah acted in the Southern Kingdom of Judah around 720 BCE.) The population of the (Northern) Kingdom of Israel was moved to the Neo-Assyrian Empire supposedly to Nineveh and so forth. Their news is unclear since then. They are known as the 10 Lost Tribes of Israel.
Subsequently, Neo-Babylonyan Empire defeated the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the Southern Kingdom of Judah was ruined by the Neo-Babylonian Empire, and the population of the Southern Kingdom of Judah was moved to Babylon around 588 BCE. Jeremiah and Ezekiel of the Southern Kingdom of Judah acted around the Babylonian Captivity.






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