Disclaimer: This is Totally Untrue.
2.3.5 History of the Children of Israel (After the Diaspora)
220.127.116.11 After the Babylonian Captivity
Thus the 10 tribes disappeared and the Diaspora of the remained started.
In contrast to the secular theory that assumes the Diaspora originates in
70 CE by the Roman Empire,
the Jewish Diaspora originates after the Babylonian captivity.
The Jewish population was led to Babylon, firstly in 597 BCE, eventually in 586 BCE.
"Babylonian Captivity in Wikipedia"
Cyrus II of Persian Achaemenid Empire defeated the Neo-Babylonian
Empire and the Jewish people were released (538 BCE).
The population of the Jewish people in Babylonia at that time is said to be
Some Jewish people returned to Jerusalem.
However, the majority of the Jewish population stayed in Babylonia,
since most Jewish people
were born in Babylon and
they had stably settled in Babylonia.
It is said that the Jewish people (firstly) returned to Jerusalem (Canaan) were 42,360,
some 1/4 or 1/3 of the Jewish population returned to Jerusalem.
*"The whole assembly together was forty-two thousand three
hundred and sixty, besides their male and female servants, of
whom there were seven thousand three hundred and thirty-seven;
and they had two hundred men and women singers. Their horses
were seven hundred and thirty-six, their mules two hundred and
forty-five, their camels four hundred and thirty-five,
and their donkeys six thousand seven hundred and twenty" (Ezr 2:64-67).
The returnees complete the Second Temple in 515 BCE.
Subsequently, Alexander defeated Achaemenid in 333 BCE.
He built Alexandria in 332 BCE and the Hellenistic world.
Greek culture diffused fusing with Oriental culture (Hellenism).
The Hellenistic world ranged from Italy, Greece, Asia Minor, the Middle East, Persia, and Egypt.
The Jewish people welcomed Alexander as the intended person in the Book of Daniel.
(Dan 7:6, 8:3-8, 8:20-22, 11:3)
Then Alexander treated the Jewish population
well particularly in Alexandria.
In addition, Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Seleucid Empire, stemmed from
Alexander's Macedonia (Macedon), ruled Canaan, forced
Greek culture and persecuted the Jewish population in Canaan (167 BCE).
A lot of Jewish people in Canaan fled or migrated to Alexandria or other Hellenistic world
from India through Rome
creating their communities.
Most Jewish population settled outside of Canaan could not understand Hebrew.
The Hebrew bible was translated into Greek (Septuagint) in
Alexandria under the Ptolemaic dynasty in 132 BCE.
18.104.22.168 Era of the Roman Empire
The Roman Republic (or the Roman Empire) ruled Canaan since 63 BCE.
The population of the Jewish people as of 20 BCE is said to be 4,500,000.
The population of the world ca. 1 CE is considered some 200,000,000 or 300,000,000.
The population of the Roman Empire at that time is said to be 45,000,000.
The population of the citizens of the Roman Empire is some 4,500,000.
The Claudian census (48 CE: in the reign of Clauds) refers to 6,944,000 Jewish population
in the Roman Empire.
(The population of Rome (city) at that time was some 1,000,000.
The population of the Jewish people in Rome (city) could be estimated some 20,000.)
The population of the Jewish people in Canaan at that time is said to be 2,500,000.
The majority of the Jewish population was not in Canaan, they had already scattered.
The First Jewish-Roman War (66-73 CE) or Bar Kokhba's Revolt (132-135 CE)
was not decisive in the Diaspora.
On the other hand, the Jewish people were persecuted
in the Roman Empire.
As of 200 CE, communities had scattered in the Roman Empire.
Populated places were Jerusalem, Alexandria, Carthage, Cordoba (the Iberian Peninsula),
Massilia (present-day Marseille, France), Genova, Rome Campania (present-day Italy),
Calabria (present-day Italy), Ephesos (Asia Minor),
Miletus (Asia Minor), Tigris, Babylon, and so on.
In addition, it is said that some Armenian cities
(South Caucasus: between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea)
had Jewish population ranging from 10,000 to 30,000 as of 4th century CE.
"History of the Jews in Russia in Wikipedia"
The Babylonian Talmud was compiled around 500 CE in Babylon.
Islam arose in 638 CE.
Islam was generous to the Jewish population because of its doctrine.
The Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula through the northern coast of
Africa in 711 CE.
A numerous Jewish population migrated to Cordoba.
They didn't have serious financial difficulties.
Khazaria should be mentioned, though the relation between Khazaria and
Ashkenazi Jewish population is controversial.
Khazaria arose in present-day Caucasus (between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea)
around 650 CE because of
the fall of Gokturk in Central Asia due to it's civil wars.
Gokturk (Turkic) originated from the Ashina clan in the Altai Mountains
(in a sense a border between Mongoloids and mixed Turkic Eurasians)
some 1,500km to the east of
Lake Balkhash (Altai is some 1,500km to the northeast of Tian Shan).
(The Ashina clan is said to have been
a mixed tribe involving Xiongnus. (originally Mongoloids))
(Gokturks seem mixed Eurasians.)
The religion of Gokturk was Tengrism associated with Khan Tengri Mountain in Tian Shan.
"Gokturks in Wikipedia"
"Altai Mountains in Wikipedia"
"Lake Balkhash in Wikipedia"
"Tian Shan in Wikipedia"
"Tengrism in Wikipedia"
"Tengri in Wikipedia"
After the fall of Gokturk, Khazaria dominated Caucasus (between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea)
and its northern area (present-day Ulyanovsk Oblast of Russia, east of present-day Ukraine, and so forth).
Khazars are said to have originally practiced Turkic Tengrism.
(Tengrism is said to have been associated with Nestorianism.)
It is said that a considerable number of East Slavic population on the northwest adjacent to Khazaria were captured and
sold as slaves to the Islamic world at that time
by Khazar people. (Islam was not negative as to slavery.)
*Details of East Slavic population at that time are unclear, since little
literature on East Slavic population at the time is seen.
They seem rather undeveloped.
Origin of Slavic population including East Slavic population
while theories wonder around the northwestern area of the Black Sea, present-day Ukraine.
"Slavic Peoples in Wikipedia"
On the other hand, some Jewish people in present-day Lithuania trading among
the Baltic Sea and present-day Poland in the 8th century CE are
said to have been reported.
"History of the Jews in Lithuania in Wikipedia"
The Khazars are said to have converted to Judaism under Bek (king) Bulan around 800 CE.
"Fordham University the Medieval Jewish Kingdom"
The origin and the tribe of Khazaria are unclear.
Theories would be
(A) Uyghur Turkics (supposedly mixed Eurasians),
(B) Huns (supposedly Mongoloids from east; possibly mixed Turkic Eurasians),
(C) Transoxiana Turkics (present-day Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan etc; supposedly mixed Eurasian)
(D) North Caucasian,
(E) Emperors of Khazaria are descendants of the Ashina clan (Turkic) of Gokturk
This theory (E) is based on the assumption that
statement in "Hudud al-'Alam"
(The Regions of the World: Persian geography book of the 10th century CE),
"Khagan (emperor) of Khazaria is the descendant of Ansa' ast"
( از فرزندان انسا است: az farzandān-i Ansā' ast),
could be interpreted as "the descendants of Ashina."
(F) The Lost Tribes of Israel from Nineveh.
"Khazars in Wikipedia"
"Caucasus in Wikipedia"
"Ulyanovsk in Wikipedia"
"Ukraine in Wikipedia"
"History of Khazaria"
On the other hand, it is said that numerous
Jewish people were in present-day France
under Charlemagne (around 800 CE) (king of the Franks).
He dominated including president-day Germany.
Then Jewish communities in the Rhineland
(west of present-day Germany)
(Mainz, Worms, and Speyer) were formed.
The Rhineland colonies are said to be the center of Ashkenazi Jewish population.
The Rhineland colonies are important clues for solving the mystery of Ashkenazi Jewish population.
Then referring to the detailed sites of the Jewish colonies in the Rhineland, they were
Mainz, Worms, and Speyer. Colonia (Cologne) followed.
In addition, the Rothschilds and the Rockefellers in later years originate in Frankfurt am Main.
"Cologne in Wikipedia"
"Mainz in Wikipedia"
"Worms in Wikipedia"
"Speyer in Wikipedia"
"Frankfurt am Main in Wikipedia"
On the other hand, it is said that
40,000 Jewish people were in Baghdad (neighboring 85km to the north of Babylon)
peacefully with Muslims as of 900 CE.
Hasdai ibn Shaprut was a prominent Jewish figure in Cordoba in 960 CE.
It is said that he corresponded with Babylonia (Babylon) and transferred the center of
Jewish theological studies from Babylon to Cordoba.
Cordoba was the primary city of the Jewish population at that time.
Jewish people were generally proficient in dealings including slave trade based on the Jewish information networks spread over
vast region, while slave trade is frequently seen everywhere in the world's history.
"Hasdai ibn Shaprut in Wikipedia"
"Jewish Encyclopedia Slave Trade"
"History of Slavery in Wikipedia"
22.214.171.124 Fall of Khazaria
Khazaria was collapsed by "Kievan Rus" in 965 CE.
However, people of Judaism seem dwelt at least around the area of former
The following website from Encyclopaedia Judaica gives Jewish figures and towns
around Kiev after the fall of Khazaria.
The character, called "Ephraim son," particularly evokes the Lost Tribes of Israel.
("Ephraim son" might be an analog of Johnson and so on.)
"Jewish Virtual Library Kiev"
In addition, it is said that a certain number of people of Judaism moved to the northwest, to Kievan Rus.
Subsequently, Andrey Bogolyubsky of Vladimir-Suzdal is said to have been assassinated by people
of Judaism from Khazaria in 1174 CE.
It is said that people of Judaism in that area were persecuted due to the assassination.
Meanwhile, the Mongol Empire invaded from the east around 1240 CE, people of Judaism
from Khazaria are said to have fled to the northwest, to Kievan Rus and present-day Poland.
126.96.36.199 Persecution and Refuge
Persecution of Jewish population in present-day France (Capetian dynasty: 987-1328 CE) seems
started in 1010 CE by Catholic diocese Alduin.
On the other hand, a prominent Rabbi Rashi appeared in northeastern present-day France around 1100 CE.
He also had teachings in Worms and Mainz in present-day Germany (Holy Roman Empire: 962-1806 CE).
It is said that the First Crusade proceeded to present-day Germany and slaughtered Jewish people.
The Jewish population in the communities along the Rhine such as Mainz, present-day Germany
was said to be merely 3% of Jewish population in the 11th century CE.
The Jewish communities along the Rhine were just a part of numerous communities distributed around
Europe, along the northern coast of Africa, through Central Asia at that time.
In contrast to the persecution, Boleslaw III of Poland
(allied with Lithuania) is said to have invited
Jewish people from a viewpoint of
Then it is said that the first migration of Jewish population to Poland was in 1098 CE.
The territory of Poland at that time was similar to that of present-day Poland (as of 2012 CE).
Subsequently, Jewish people in present-day Germany were alleged of cooperation with
Mongol invasion around 1240 CE.
King Edward I expelled all (16,000) Jewish people from England in 1290 CE.
Jewish people in Western Europe were said to be alleged of the cause of the Black Death around 1348-1350 CE.
Charles VI, the Mad, of present-day France (Valois dynasty, Era of Hundred Years's War (1337-1453 CE)
and the Black Death)
expelled Jewish people from his domains
around 1394 CE so as to release Christians' debts.
Martin Luther theorized persecution of Jewish population in 1543 CE.
188.8.131.52 Expulsion from the Iberian Peninsula and the Age of Discovery
The Iberian Peninsula was ruled by Islam peacefully from a Jewish viewpoint.
However, Christian kingdoms recovered the Iberian Peninsula (Reconquista).
Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile married, united their Christian kingdoms to be the
Kingdom of Spain, and started to expel Judaism and Islam from
the Iberian Peninsula (Spanish Inquisition (1480 CE) and Alhambra Decree (1492 CE)).
300,000 Jewish people in the Iberian Peninsula fled to various places, such as North Africa,
Asia Minor, Balkan,
Italy, London, and mostly Amsterdam.
On the other hand, the explorer supposedly from Genoa,
present-day Italy, Christopher Columbus,
persuaded Isabella I to support him sailing west to reach East Asia and India.
India and East Asia were promising regions at that time, though the Ottoman Empire hindered it.
Then he reached the new continent in 1492 CE
boarding Santa Maria presenting red crosses.
The ethnic origin of Columbus is controversial, while he might be a Jewish person.
Model of Santa Maria
"Origin Theories of Christopher Columbus in Wikipedia"
Genoa was a populated place of Jewish people.
In addition, Luis de Saintangel, chancellor of the Royal household,
Gabriel Sanchez, the treasurer of Aragon, and Juan Cabrero, Sanchez's assistant,
advised Isabella I to support Columbus.
They were all Jewish.
Luis de Torres, an interpretor, Mastre Bernal, a physician, Marco, a surgeon,
Alfonso de la Calle, and Roderigo Sanchez accompanied Columbus' sail.
They were Jewish.
On the other hand, Jewish people, moved to Amsterdam, made an
equity participation in Dutch East India Company in 1602 CE.
The Dutch East India Company advanced into Java and dealt in spice.
"Dutch East India Company in Wikipedia"
The Netherlands had confronted England at that time, for instance,
known as Anglo-Dutch Wars.
The Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company
are commonly said to be competitive.
"Anglo-Dutch Wars in Wikipedia"
However, England and the Netherlands had signed a treaty about
business in India and East Asia in 1619 CE.
Despite accidental Amboyna massacre in 1623 CE,
the English East India Company and the Dutch East India Company had shared interests,
India for the English East India Company, Java and so forth for the Dutch East India Company.
"English East India Company in Wikipedia"
"Amboyna Massacre in Wikipedia"
The English East India Company and the Rothschilds in
Frankfurt am Main at that time seem unconnected.
184.108.40.206 Migration from Western Europe (1)
The Dutch East India Company sought another merchandise in America
and found beavers as fur in the Hudson River found in 1609 CE, named
after Henry Hudson of the Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company.
"Henry Hudson in Wikipedia"
Pilgrims from England migrated to New England (such as present-day Massachusetts) in 1620 CE.
The Dutch East India Company settled in an island in 1625 CE and named it "New Amsterdam"
(present-day New York).
"New Amsterdam in Wikipedia"
New Amsterdam changed into New York in 1664 CE.
Subsequently, a lot of Sephardi Jewish people migrated to North America around 1700 CE and succeeded.
Sephardi Jewish people became rather wealthy.
"Early American Jews"
By the way, the flag of England was the Cross of St George.
(England (Anglo-Saxon's southern part of Britain island including
Celtic Wales' southwestern part of Britain island) and Scotland (Celtic northern part of Britain island)
were unified through the Acts of Union in 1707 CE
to be the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
Then the Cross of St George and the Andrew's Cross of Scotland were unified.)
The flag of the English East India Company at that time (before 1707 CE) consists of
the Cross of St George in the upper left quarter (canton) and red/white stripes.
Flag of the English East India Company as of 1685 CE
Flag of the English East India Company as of 1700 CE
"British East India Company in Wikipedia"
"St Geroge's Cross in Wikipedia"
"Flag of Scotland (St Andrew's Cross) in Wikipedia"
"Acts of Union 1707 in Wikipedia"
"Committee of 300" originated in the British East India Company
(former English East India Company) in 1727 CE.
"Committee of 300 in Wikipedia"
The Boston Tea Party arose in Dec 1773 CE.
(According to the accepted story, the British government allied
with the British East India Company imposed on the tea
monopolized by the British East India Company.
Colonists opposed to Great Britain resisted throwing
the shiploads of the British East India
Company's tea into Boston Harbor.
Then it led to the American Revolutionary
War of Independence (1775-1783 CE).)
Geroge Washington won the independence in
1781 CE. The flag of the British East India
Company changed into the flag of the USA
in 1777 CE.
The total population of the USA as of 1776 CE
is said to be 3,000,000, while the Jewish population
in the USA at that time is said to be 2,500.
"Flag of the United States in Wikipedia"
220.127.116.11 Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as of 1772 CE included present-day Belarus and present-day
It is said that 10% of the population was Jewish.
According to the traditional theory,
Jewish people in Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth were exclusively from
Western Europe such as the Rhineland.
On the other hand, the other theory could be that
somewhat population of Judaism from the southeast was included.
That would be from Khazaria or the Lost Tribes of Israel.
"Belarus in Wikipedia"
"Ukraine in Wikipedia"
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was divided by the Russian Empire,
the Kingdom of Prussia, and Habsburg Austria and fell in 1795 CE.
Then "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe" in Poland and
Lithuania (including present-day Belarus and
present-day western Ukraine)
lost the safe refuge.
For example, "Pale of Settlement" was established by Catherine the Great of
the Russian Empire in 1791 CE (lasted until 1917 CE).
"Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe" in the Russian Empire were confined in the designated
western area of the Russian Empire in poverty.
On the other hand, it is said that the population of "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe"
in Russia as of 1820 CE was some 1,600,000.
"Pale of Settlement in Wikipedia"
18.104.22.168 Migration from Western Europe (2)
Some 250,000 of "Descendants through the Rhineland" (remained in the Rhineland) migrated
from the Rhineland to the USA during 1820-1870 CE.
Since the Revolution of 1848 in Germany was unsuccessful,
most of them migrated to the USA around 1850 CE.
They were called Forty Eighters.
"Revolution of 1848 in Germany in Wikipedia"
They are said to have descended from medieval Jewish
communities along the Rhine such as Mainz, present-day Germany.
They had financial difficulties.
Some migrated "Descendants through the Rhineland" engaged in peddlers,
retailing, finance, investment, and so forth.
The center of business for "Descendants through the Rhineland" was Kuhn, Loeb & Co.
founded by the Rothschilds in 1867 CE.
"Kuhn, Loeb & Co. in Wikipedia"
Migrated "Descendants through the Rhineland" (Forty Eighters) grew supported by
the Rothschilds through Kuhn, Loeb & Co.
Marcus Goldman migrated from Germany to the USA in 1848 CE.
He started as a peddler and grew to be an investment banking firm, Goldman Sachs.
"Marcus Goldman in Wikipedia"
Later Macy's, Bloomingdale's, New York Times, NBC, CBS, ABC, Disney, Paramount,
Levis, Ralph Lauren, Estee Lauder, Revlon, Rockefeller, and so forth followed.
The population of "Descendants through the Rhineland"
in the USA is said to be 230,000 as of 1880 CE.
They tended to refrain from showing Jewish features, tended to assimilate in the USA society.
On the other hand, Karl Marx, in a sense a Jewish scholar, "Descendant through the Rhineland,"
released "Capital Volume I" in 1867 CE.
"Karl Marx in Wikipedia"
22.214.171.124 Migration from Eastern Europe
After the defeat of Russia in the Crimean War 1856 CE,
population of former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth attempted independence against Russia
(January Uprising in 1863 CE).
"January Uprising in Wikipedia"
However, the uprising collapsed and people (Polish and Jewish) were all the more persecuted.
Subsequently, 2,800,000 of "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe"
migrated to the USA during 1880-1924 CE.
(The USA restricted migration in 1924 CE.)
On the other hand for example, the population of "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe"
in Russia (mostly in the Pale of Settlement) as of 1897 CE is
said to be some 5,200,000
despite the migration,
though the population of "Claimed Descendants through
Eastern Europe" in Russia (in the Pale of Settlement)
as of 1820 CE is said to be some 1,600,000.
This growth of population is said to be accounted for by high birthrate.
Other than that, Vladimur Lenin, a Jewish politician in a sense,
and his Jewish colleagues of "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe"
remained in Russia
made the October Revolution in 1917 CE and founded the Jewish Empire, the USSR, in 1922 CE.
Lenin (1870-1924 CE) was born in Ulyanovsk.
Trotsky (1879-1940 CE) was born in South Ukraine.
Djugashvili, also known as Stalin (1878-1953 CE), was born in Georgia of Caucasus in 1878 CE.
(The meaning of "Djugashvili" in old Georgian language is controversial
whether "son of Jew (Jewison)" or not.)
The former 2 Jewish politicians allied, while Stalin supposedly aware of
Jewish politicians' intention opposed them.
On the other hand, Stalin married a former clerk of Lenin, Nadezhda Alliluyeva (1901–1932 CE),
possibly a Jewish woman.
The birth places of these politicians are all in the area of former Khazaria.
"Vladimir Lenin in Wikipedia"
"Stalin in Wikipedia"
Lenin died in 1924 CE.
Trotsky was expelled by Stalin in 1929 CE.
The Jewish power in the USSR to a certain extent started to decline since then.
It is said that the Jewish population as of 1929 CE is as follows.
The total Jewish population as of 1929 CE is said to be 15,460,000.
(The world population as of 1929 CE is said to be 2,000,000,000.)
The populations by region were as follows.
The Jewish population in Europe was 10,900,000.
The Jewish population in Asia was 570,000.
The Jewish population in Africa was 390,000.
The Jewish population in America was 3,570,000.
The Jewish population in Australia was 19,000.
The Jewish populations by country were as follows.
Poland 3,720,000 (including Warsaw's 300,000).
The USA 3,300,000 (including New York's 1,500,000).
The USSR 2,970,000 (including Moscow's 300,000).
Rumania 950,000 (including Bucharest's 42,000).
Germany 540,000 (including Berlin's 142,000).
Hungary 500,000 (including Budapest's 200,000).
The Netherlands 106,000.
The Jewish population in Eastern Europe was considerably numerous
including the preceding migrants to the USA from Eastern Europe.
Stalin's 2nd wife Alliluyeva died in 1932 CE.
Migration from Eastern Europe and so forth to the USA resumed in 1933 CE
including Albert Einstein due to rise of Nazi.
Facing the assassination of Kirov, Stalin held hegemony as of 1934 CE
and persecuted the Jewish power taking precautions against assassinations.
"Sergey Kirov in Wikipedia"
The Jewish population in Poland as of 1939 CE (supposedly
"Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe") is
said to be 3,300,000.
3,000,000 of the 3,300,000 are said to have been executed the Holocaust.
The Jewish population in the USSR as of 1939 CE (supposedly
"Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe")
is said to be 3,000,000.
1,300,000 of the 3,000,000 are said to have been executed the Holocaust.
(Although Hitler's true assignment was to fight the USSR
securing the collected Jewish population
(mostly "Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe")
claiming their migration to the east.)
"The Holocaust in Wikipedia"
The Jewish population in the USA including above various categories amounted to 4,800,000 as of 1940 CE.
On the other hand, Rosa Kaganovich could be the 3rd secret wife of Stalin around 1945 CE.
Then Stalin could be assassinated by her brother Lazar Kaganovich and his cousin Lavrentiy Beria in 1953 CE.
("Kaganovich" means "son of emperor (of Khazaria or Gokturk),"
since Khagan means "emperor (of Khazaria or Gokturk).")
However, Georgy Zhukov made a prompt counterattack against Beria
and defeated the Jewish power.
"Lavrentiy Beria in Wikipedia"
The Russian power was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev (1894–1971 CE),
Leonid Brezhnev (1906–1982 CE), Yuri Andropov (1914-1984 CE), and Konstantin Chernenko (1911–1985 CE).
Migrants from the USSR and Russia to Israel after WWII are numerous as well.
For instance, migrants to Israel during 1948-1957 CE were 900,000.
Then Mikhail Gorbachev was elected General Secretary 1985 CE and collapsed the USSR.
Russian alcoholic Boris Yeltsin's Jewish wife Naina,
daughter Tatyana, and their
Jewish colleagues including Jeffery Sachs
raised the Jewish power in Russia.
"Naina Yeltsina in Wikipedia"
"Tatyana Yumasheva in Wikipedia"
There were 1,450,000 Jewish population (possibly
"Claimed Descendants through Eastern Europe")
in the USSR as of 1989 CE.
Migrants to Israel during 1990-1999 CE were 950,000.
Some 40% of migrants to Israel were from the USSR and Russia.
From Argentina and Ethiopia folllow.
Eventually, the Russian alcoholic noticed the Jewish context and allied with Vladimir Putin in 1999 CE.
Vladimir Putin, who is a grandson of Stalin's cook and familiar with the context through the KGB,
Return to the Home Page