Disclaimer: This is Totally Untrue.


2.3.7 Genetic Consideration

2.3.7.1 An Outline of Haplogroups

Sequences of Y-DNA are categorized as Y-DNA haplogroups. An outline of the categorization can be seen as a haplogroup tree in the following website.
* "Y-DNA Haplogroups in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_Y-chromosome_DNA_haplogroups
Sequences of mitochondrial DNA are categorized as mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. An outline of the categorization can be seen as a haplogroup tree in the following website.
* "Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Human_mitochondrial_DNA_haplogroup
Distribution of Y-DNA haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA in the world could be seen clicking the thumbnail map of the following website to download the haplogroup maps of the world.
* "World Haplogroup Map Illinois" http://www.scs.illinois.edu/~mcdonald/
Details could be seen in the following websites.
* "Y-DNA Haplogroups by Ethnic Groups in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-DNA_haplogroups_by_ethnic_groups
* "Y-Chromosome Haplogroups by Populations in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-chromosome_haplogroups_by_populations
* "Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups by Populations in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ MtDna_haplogroups_by_populations
(asterisk (*) after Haplogroup means "paragroup")
* "Paragroup in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paragroup

2.3.7.2 The Most Probable Legitimate Children of Israel

Prior to consideration, an assumption here involving the most probable legitimate children of Israel is Sephardi Jewish population. As mentioned before, numbers of Jewish populated in the Iberian Peninsula, present-day Sephardi Jewish population descended from these legitimate Jewish population. On the other hand, the origin of Ashkenazi Jewish population, commonly said to have descended from a small community in the Rhineland, is controversial for now.

2.3.7.3 Relation between Y-DNA, mitochondrial DNA, Other DNAs, and Blood Relatives

As mentioned before, Y-DNAs are inherited from fathers to their sons, mtDNAs are inherited from mothers to their daughters. Then Y-DNA represents the thorough paternal lineage, like father's - father's - father's - father's - father. In contrast, mtDNA represents the thorough maternal lineage, like mother's - mother's - mother's - mother's - mother.
However, it should be noted that Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA are the exceptions. Actually, one's DNAs consist of not only the extreme father's and the extreme mother's. Because crossover commonly occurs involving DNAs aside from Y-DNA and mtDNA, one's DNAs (aside from Y-DNA and mtDNA) generally consist of various fragmentary sequences from various ancestors. For example, a fragmentary sequence of a DNA comes from father's - father's - mother's - father, another fragmentary sequence of a DNA comes from father's - mother's - father's - mother, and another fragmentary sequence of a DNA comes from mother's - father's - father's - mother. However, present-day DNA science can't trace these fragmentary sequences from various ancestors between two extremes.
According to present-day DNA science, the only tracing method of DNA sequences is about Y-DNA and mtDNA involving the extreme father and the extreme mother. This is a limit of present-day science.

On the other hand, the target here is "Children of Israel (Jacob)," "blood relatives of Israel (Jacob)." That is, persons who has fragmentary DNA sequence(s) from Israel (Jacob). If a man has the Y-DNA from Jacob, the same haplogroup of Y-DNA, it is sufficient to acknowledge the (extreme) blood relationship. However, those who have the same haplogroup Y-DNA are not the only blood relatives (descendants) of Jacob. There would be numerous persons who have fragmentary DNA sequences from Jacob.

However, as mentioned above, persons (descendants of Jacob) with fragmentary DNA sequences from Jacob (except Y-DNA) couldn't be traced due to the limitations of present-day DNA science.
Consequently, genetic tracing available today is Y-DNA involving thorough (extreme) paternal lineage and mtDNA involving thorough (extreme) maternal lineage.

On the other hand, if 100 generations are experienced during 3000 years, the number of the 100th descendant's original ancestors would be theoretically some 2^100=10^30. However, there couldn't be such myriad original ancestors. Then, consanguineous marriages in a sense among limited populations should be common. The limited population where marriages were commonly practiced would be called "tribe." Concerning a descendant, the extreme father and the extreme mother of the descendant, who could be traced by Y-DNAs and mtDNAs would lurk in the tribe's original ancestors. Accumulating the haplogroups of the extreme fathers and the extreme mothers of a tribe's descendants, it would indicate the haplogroup composition of the tribe's original ancestors.
The following should be considered besed on such context.

2.3.7.4 Y-DNA Haplogroups

Distribution
Y-DNA composition of various populations are roughly as follows. Data are mostly picked up from the distribution map of Illinois and Wikipedia. Proportion of major haplogroups and the paths with ">" are indicated. Haplogroups are colored complying with rough categories.

Ashkenazi Jewish (in the Near East)
  J (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>J) (38%)
  E1b1b (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (20%)
  G (A>BT>CT>CF>F>G) (10%)
  R1a (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>P>R) (possibly some 10%)

Sephardi Jewish (in the Near East)
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>P>R) (30%)
  J (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>J) (28%)

  E1b1b (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (19%)
Kurdish Jewish
  J (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>J) (37%)
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>P>R) (20%)

  E1b1b (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (12%)
Arabian (in Saudi Arabia)
  J (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>J) (58%)
  E1b1a (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (8%)
  E1b1b (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (8%)

Arabian (in Israel)
  J (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>J) (55%)
  E1b1b (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (20%)
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>P>R) (8%)
Egyptian
  E1b1b (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (some 42%)
  J (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>J) (some 21%)
  G (A>BT>CT>CF>F>G) (some 12%)
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>P>R) (some 11%)

South African (native)
  E (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (65%)
  A except BT (A>except BT) (30%)
Pygmy (Central Africa)
  E (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (65%)
  B (A>BT>B) (30%)
Berber (Morocco)
  E1b1b (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (89%)
Spanish
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (65%)
  E1b1b (A>BT>CT>DE>E) (10%)
French
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (52%)
  I (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>I) (17%)

German
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (30%)
  I (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>I) (27%)
  R1a (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (20%)

Polish
  R1a (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (56%)
  I (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>I) (17%)
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (15%)

Russian
  R1a (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (30%)
  N (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>N) (some 20%)
  I (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>I) (some 15%)

Ukrainian
  R1a (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (42%)
  I (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>I) (25%)
  R1b (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (19%)

Ossetian (Central Caucasus; midpoint between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea)
  G (A>BT>CT>CF>F>G) (60%)
  J (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>J) (34%)

Dargin-Chamalin (Eastern Caucasus; on the west coast of the Caspian Sea)
  J (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>IJ>J) (70-94%)
  G (A>BT>CT>CF>F>G) (3-19%)

Indian
  H (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>H) (25%)
  R1a (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (some 15%)
  R2 (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>R) (some 10%)
  O (A>BT>CT>CF>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>O) (10% (0-80% vary from place to place))
Andamanese (Andaman Islands between India and Myanmar)
  D (A>BT>CT>DE>D) (56%)
  O (A>BT>CT>CF>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>O) (30%)
Tibetan
  D (A>BT>CT>DE>D) (50%)
  O (A>BT>CT>CF>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>O) (40%)
Han (Chinese)
  O3 (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>O) (56%)
  O2 (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>O) (16%)
  O1 (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>O) (10%)
  N (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>N) (some 9%)

Japanese
  D (A>BT>CT>DE>D) (40%)
  O2 (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>O) (33%)
  O3 (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>NO>O) (20%)

Ainu (native Japanese in the northern end of the Japanese archipelago)
  D (A>BT>CT>DE>D) (88%)
  C (A>BT>CT>CF>C) (12%)
Aborigine (native Australian)
  C (A>BT>CT>CF>C) (60%)
  K (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K) (22%)
Apache (native American)
  Q (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>P>Q) (78%)
  C3 (A>BT>CT>CF>C) (15%)
Ticuna (native Amazonian)
  Q (A>BT>CT>CF>F>IJK>K>MNOPS>P>Q) (100%)

Distance
First, a sense of distance among haplogroups should be recognized. The population is firstly divided into haplogroup A (except BT) (seen in South Africans) and haplogroup BT depending on SNPs called M91 and P97. Secondly, BT is divided into B and CT depending on SNP called M168. Thirdly, CT is divided into DE and CF depending on SNPs M145 and so forth along with Unique Event Polymorphism (UEP) called Y-chromosome Alu Polymorphism (YAP). Alu sequence on Y-DNA accompanies M145 in DE and it especially certifies common ancestry splitted from CT. Fourthly, DE is divided into D and E depending on SNP M174. On the other hand, fifth, CF is divided into C and F depending on SNPs P14, M89, and so forth. Sixthly, F is divided into G, H, and IJK. IJK is divided into IJ and K. K is divided into LT and MNOPS. MNOPS is divided into M, NO, P, and S. NO is divided into N and O. P is divided into Q and R.
R is representative in native European people such as Spanish people and French people. Q, a related species of R, is representative in native Amazonian people. O, a related species of Q and R, is representative in Chinese (Han) people. K, a sub-related species of R, Q, and O, is representative in Aboridine (native Australian) people. French people, native Amazonian people, Chinese people, and Aboridine people are more or less related species from a view point of Y-DNA. (Then these are colored in blue)
In contrast to that, DE (colored in green) is a different thing. Distance between R and DE is by far more distant than between R (European people), O (Chinese people), and Q (Amazonian prople).
(However, haplogroup A except BT (native South African people, colored in red) and haplogroup B (Pygmy people in Central Africa) are by far more distant.)
Then the 4 major categories of Y-DNA haplogroup would be "A except BT (A xBT)," "B," "DE," and "CF." Y-DNA of Yahweh seems to have lurked in one of these 4 categories. (However, "A except BT" and "B" would be excluded referring to the Bible.)

Impurity
For example, Ticuna (native Amazonians) consists of 100% haplogroup Q and descends from one paternal ancestor. However, such purity is not seen in other populations. Generally different kinds of Y-DNAs are mixed. A tribe and an ethnic group commonly consist of some Y-DNA haplogroups. There is no tribe nor ethnic group composed of a single Y-DNA haplogroup (aside from Ticuna and so forth). It should be accepted.
It's quite natural involving Jewish population as well because children of Jewish mothers have been defined as Jewish population regardless of fathers' lineage. In addition, converts have been recognized as Jewish population.
* "Who is a Jew in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Who_is_a_Jew%3F

Paternal Lineage
However, the Bible narrates paternal stories on the whole. For instance, Yahweh calls out to the Children of Israel (Jacob), neither to Children of Rachel nor Leah. The characters in the Bible are mostly males. The blessed was Jacob, the man. Then what this website is searching for is "the Children of Israel (Jacob)" regardless of the definition of Jewish population in Judaism.

Hiding Place of Yahweh's Y-DNA
Even if based on the assumption that Jacob was the son of Yahweh and Rebecca, Yahweh's Y-DNA was not so distinctive enough to be distinguished among humans' Y-DNAs. However, the possible hiding place could be confined to a certain extent. It would be within J, R, or E (including DE) since they are common in Ashkenazi Jewish population, Sephardi Jewish population, and Kurdish Jewish population.
The controversial point of J, R, and E (or DE) is that they are rather more frequent in other populations.
The frequency of J among Jewish population is some 30-40%. On the other hand, the frequency of J among Arabian population is some 55%. J among Dargin-Chamalin (in Caucasus) is 70-94%.
The frequency of R among Jewish population is some 10-37%. On the other hand, the frequency of R among Spanish and French populations is 52-65%.
The frequency of E among Jewish population is 12-20%. (D among Japanese population is 40%) On the other hand, E among Berber population in Morocco is 89%.
DNA (haplogroup) unique to Jewish population is not seen.
In other words, present-day Y-DNA science can't find genetic grounds for the legitimacy of Jewish population descended from Yahweh.
Then even if Y-DNA of Yahweh is associated with J, R, or E (or DE), haplogroups J, R, or E (or DE) are not unique to Jewish population or the Children of Israel. J, R, or E (or DE) wouldn't be the core DNA of the Jewish population or the Children of Israel. Although one of J, R, or E (or DE) might include the Children of Israel, it doesn't assure the close linkage between the haplogroup and the Children of Israel. Just unknown specific Y-DNAs descended from Yahweh would lurk among J, R, or E (or DE).
It is a limit of present-day science.

Ancient Migration
Despite such limitation of present-day Y-DNA science, the unusual distribution (isolation) of DE requires explanation. The unusual distribution implies ancient migration of specific groups from the Middle East or North Africa to the Far East leaving small fractions in Andaman Islands and Tibet.

Origin of Ashkenazi Jewish Population
As mentioned above, the origin of Ashkenazi Jewish population ("Claimed descendants through Eastern Europe") is controversial. However, curious circumstances are seen among haplogroup data. That is, haplogroup G among Ashkenazi Jewish population. Ashkenazi Jewish population has 10% haplogroup G. On the other hand, G is not seen among Sephardi Jewish population, Spanish population, French population, German population, Polish population, Ukrainian population, Russian population, and most of other populations. The population G is frequently seen is Ossetian in Central Caucasus. Then the answer would be rather simple. Somewhat Ashkenazi Jewish population have come from or through Caucasus, the region of former Khazaria or possibly from Nineveh. The true character of the Ashkenazi Jewish population from or through Caucasus is unclear because present-day DNA science is so limited that it can't distinguish even between Jewish and Arabic population.

Unified Kingdom in the Prophecy of Ezekiel
As mentioned before, Ezekiel prophesied unified kingdom of Judah and Ephraim. If Ashkenazi Jewish population include the population from Nineveh, it might correspond to the prophecy. The USSR or Israel might be the unified kingdom. The prophecy refers to the king descended from David. Based on the above assumption, the Rothschilds might correspond to the descendants of David, though there seems no significant evidence to support the origin of the Rothschilds as David. Chernobyl might be the "Abomination" Jesus prophesied. However, this assumption seems to be a rather ill-founded argument on the whole.

2.3.7.5 Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups

Distribution
Mitochondrial-DNA composition of various populations are roughly as follows. Data are mostly picked up from the distribution map of Illinois and Wikipedia. In addition, data are picked up from the following website.
* "mtDNA Variation in Jews Biodiversity" http://www.forumbiodiversity.com/showthread.php?t=2829
Proportion of major haplogroups and the paths with ">" are indicated. Haplogroups are colored complying with rough categories as well.

Ashkenazi Jewish
  K (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U>K) (29%)
  H (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (21%)
  HV (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV) (11%)
  J1 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>J) (9%)
  N (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N) (8%)
Polish Ashkenazi Jewish
  K (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U>K) (38%)
  H (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (14%)
  HV* (entire HV excluding H) (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV) (10%)
  J (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>J) (9%)
Russian Ukrainian Ashkenazi Jewish
  H (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (27%)
  K (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U>K) (17%)
  HV* (entire HV excluding H) (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV) (13%)
  J (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>J) (10%)
  N (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N) (7%)
  T (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>T) (7%)
  U (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U) (7%)
Sephardi Jewish
  H (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (40%)
  X (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>X) (12%)
  K (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U>K) (10%)
  U (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U) (9%)
  J (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>J) (8%)
Palestinian
  H* (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (28%)
  L (L) (14%)
  J (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>J) (9%)
  T2 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>T) (8%)
Ethiopian
  L3 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3) (25%)
  L1 (L1) (15%)
  L2 (L2) (15%)
  M (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M) (10%)
South African (native)
  L1 (L1) (75%)
  L3 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3) (20%)
Spanish
  H* (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (55%)
  J (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>J) (10%)
  K (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U>K) (6%)
French
  H* (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (43%)
  K (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U>K) (11%)
  T2 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>T) (9%)
Ice Man (Oetzi) in Alpens
  K (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U>K)
German
  H* (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (50%)
  K (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U>K) (7%)
Polish non-Jewish
  H (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (45%)
  U (non-K) (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U) (16%)
  T (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>T) (12%)
Russian non-Jewish
  H (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>R0>HV>H) (42%)
  U (non-K) (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U) (18%)
  T (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>JT>T) (11%)
Indian
  M (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M) (44%)
  U2e (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U) (18%)
  N2 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N) (9%)
  U7 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>U) (9%)
Han (Chinese)
  D4 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>D) (20%)
  D4* (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>D) (15%)
  F1 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>F1) (15%)
  A (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>A) (8%)
  B4a (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>B) (8%)
Korean
  D4 (L3'4'6>L3'4>M>D) (24%)
  B4 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>B) (10%)
  F1 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>F) (9%)
  N9a (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N) (7%)
Japanese
  D4 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>D) (30%)
  M7 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M) (19%)
  B4 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>B) (8%)
  F (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>F) (8%)
  A (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>A) (7%)
  G (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>G) (6%)
  B5 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>B) (5%)
Ainu (northern end of the Japanese archipelago)
  Y (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>Y) (22%)
  D (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>D) (18%)
  M7a (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>M7a) (16%)
  G1 (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>G>G1) (16%)
Nivkh (Sakhalin Island to the north of the Japanese archipelago)
  Y (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>Y) (66%)
Aborigine (native Australians)
  N (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N) (60%)
  P (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>P) (40%)
Northern Amerind (native northern American)
  A (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>A) (60%)
  B (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>B) (20%)
  C (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>CZ>C) (20%)
Southern Amerind (native southern American)
  D (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>D) (40%)
  C (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>M>CZ>C) (30%)
  B (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>R>B) (20%)
Ice Maiden in Peruvian Andes
  A (L3'4'6>L3'4>L3>N>A)

Structure of the Tree
First, the original group is divided into "L0" and "L1-6." "L1-6" is divided into "L1" and "L2-6." "L2-6" is divided into "L5" and "L2'3'4'6." "L2'3'4'6" is divided into "L2" and "L3'4'6." "L3'4'6" is divided into "L6" and "L3'4." "L3'4" is divided into "L4" and "L3." "L3" is divided into "M" and "N."
"L0-6," "M," and "N" would be the 3 major categories of mtDNA haplogroups. "L0-6" are typical in Africa. "M" is typical in India, East Asia, South America. "N" is typical in other regions.
"M" is divided into "CZ," "D," "E," "G," and "Q." "N" is divided into "A," "S," "R," "I," "W," "X," and "Y." "R" is divide into "B," "F," "R0," "pre JT," "P," and "U." "R0" is divided into "H" and "V." "pre JT" is divided into "J" and "T." "U" is divided into "U1," "U2," "U3," "U4," "U5," "U6," "U7," and "U8." "U8" includes "K."

Whereabouts of mitochondrial DNA of the 4 Mothers
The question here is to trace the Children of Israel (Jacob). Israel (Jacob) had 12 sons and one daughter between 4 women. The 13 children naturally had mtDNA of their mothers accordingly. However, children of the 12 sons don't have mtDNA of the 4 grandmothers. MtDNAs of the children of the 12 sons (grandchildren) are derived from the mothers of the children (grandchildren). Mt DNAs of the 4 mothers are not inherited by the children of the 12 sons. The daughter of Israel (Jacob) was Dinah between Leah. The child of Dinah is unclear, while it is said that "Saul," followed Simeon to Egypt, might be the son of Dinah and Shechem. Dinah's daughter is not seen. Then mtDNAs of the 4 mothers would not be inherited. What tracing here involving mtDNA would be mtDNAs of wives and concubines of the 12 sons among the tribes of Israel and so forth. On the other hand, for example, Ephraim's mother was Asenath, an Egyptian woman, however, her daughter is not seen. With regard to Solomon, since he had 1000 wives and concubines mostly from abroad, mothers of Solomon's children are unclear.
* "David's Family Tree" http://www.swartzentrover.com/cotor/bible/bible/OT/History/I%20&%20II%20Samuel/David's%20Family%20Tree.htm

Findings on Jewish mtDNA Haplogroups
As far as "N" regions, "H" is generally the most frequent haplogroup including Sephardi Jewish population. However, Ashkenazi Jewish population is somewhat different. "K" is the most frequent haplogroup exclusively among Ashkenazi Jewish population. The birthplace of "K" is said to be northeastern Italy. "K" is frequent in Cyprus, located in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, west of Syria, Lebanon, south of Turkey, northwest of Israel. "K" could be distinctive of Ashkenazi Jewish population, while the relation between Ashkenazi Jewish population and the origin of "K" is unclear.
In addition, "K" is not distinctive of Sephardi Jewish population. "K" is rather frequent among French population compared with Sephardi Jewish population. Then "K" would not be the sign of the legitimate Children of Israel.
On the other hand, "H" is frequent among Sephardi Jewish population. However, "H" is rather more frequent among other populations such as Spanish and German. Then "H" would not be the sign of the Children of Israel. In contrast, "X" seems distinctive of Sephardi Jewish population. "X" is said to be frequent among the Druze, a minority population in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. However, whether it could be the sign of the Children of Israel or not seems unclear.
* "Haplogroup X (mtDNA) in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_X_(mtDNA)
Consequently, mitochondrial DNA haplogroups can't successfully identify the Children of Israel. It would be also a limit of present-day DNA science.

Distinction of Japanese mitochondrial DNA
In contrast to the distinction of Japanese Y-DNA, Japanese mitochondrial DNAs are not so distinctive compared with adjacent populations such as Korean and Han Chinese. Still, "G" among Japanese population might be somewhat distinctive. "G" is said to be frequent in northeastern Siberia (the Kamchatka Peninsula). "G" is also exclusively seen among Japanese and Ainu (like Y-DNA haplogroup D). However, "G" is yet "M" group (East Asian mtDNA). MtDNAs seen in Japan are mostly similar to Han's. Then Japanese mtDNAs (women) couldn't be particularly associated with the Middle East.
It implies that migrants from the west to the east were mostly males.
On the other hand, haplogroup Y is seen among Ainu people at the northern end of the Japanese archipelago. However, high frequency of haplogroup Y among Nivkh people located in Sakhalin Island on the north of Ainu's region accounts for it.






Return to the Home Page