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2.3.9.2.2 Old Testament and Kojiki

2.3.9.2.2.1 Introduction

The 2 major holy books of Shinto are "Kojiki" (古事記; literally: Record of Ancient Matters) and "Nihon Shoki" (日本書紀; literally: Japanese Book of Narrative or the Chronicles of Japan). It is said that Kojiki was released in 712 CE and Nihon Shoki was released in 720 CE. These books have mostly the same story. Kojiki is said to be domestic version, while Nihon Shoki has additional articles and is said to be enlarged version of Kojiki or diplomatic version. Shinto is based on these books as Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are based on the Old Testament, the New Testament, and the Quran.
Traditional explanations of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Japanese myths, can be found somewhere for example in Wikipedia. However, some scholars found a lot of curious similarities between Kojiki (Nihon Shoki) and the Old Testament.
The following are nearly complete translations of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki.
* "Kojiki Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/index.htm
* "Nihon Shoki Wikidot" http://nihonshoki.wikidot.com/

2.3.9.2.2.2 From Abraham to Moses

Abraham and Sarah once lived in Tagarma Harran (Harran in Tagarma (in Turkey)). Their son is Isaac. The sons of Isaac and Rebecca are Esau the elder, and Jacob the younger. At first, Esau was scheduled to succeed Isaac, but consequently Jacob succeeded Isaac through various context. Jacob fled to Harran (the home town of Rebecca) because of anxiety of Esau's anger. Jacob intended to marry Rachel (a daughter of his uncle Laban), while Laban requested Jacob to marry both his beautiful daughter Rachel and disadvantageous daughter Leah (to marry both beautiful and disadvantageous sisters). Jacob (and his family) moved from Tagarma Harran to Canaan. On the way to Canaan, Jacob had a wrestling and Jacob was authorized (he was given the new name "Israel"). He reached Canaan and Esau left Canaan peacefully. (Esau's descendants dominated Edom region.) Jacob (Israel) had a number of sons between Leah and maids. Rachel gave birth to Joseph, her first son. Subsequently, Rachel gave birth to Benjamin, her second son, however, died young due to this second difficult birth.
Joseph was bullied by his brothers and exiled to Egypt. Yet, he married a daughter of a high official and he became high rank. Subsequently, his brothers in Canaan suffered from famine. Joseph made peace with his brothers and helped them afterward.
The sons of Joseph are Manasseh and Ephraim. The younger son Ephraim was particularly blessed by Jacob (Israel). The sons of Ephraim were Shuthelah, Ezer, Elead, Beriah (1Ch 7). The 2nd son Ezer and the 3rd son Elead were killed young. Joshua, the successor of Moses, descended from Beriah. (Jeroboam, the first king of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, descended from Ephraim.)

On the other hand, according to Kojiki, God Su-sa-no-o (須佐之男; formal name: Take-haya-su-sa-no-o-no-mikoto: 建速須佐之男命) and Goddess Ama-terasu-oo-mi-kami (天照大御神) ruled Tak-ama-ga-hara (高天原; literally: the Plain of High Heaven Field). As the result of the oath of Su-sa-no-o and Ama-terasu, 5 Gods (sons) including God Ame-no-oshi-ho-mimi-no-mikoto (天忍穂耳命) and 3 Goddesses (daughters) were born.
*"Kojiki" is the oldest extant history book of Japan. The original version of Kojiki and Nihon Shoki were written employing Chinese characters. Japan had its native language, while Japan didn't have native Japanese characters at that time. So Kojiki and Nihon Shoki were written employing Chinese characters from a viewpoint of pronunciation of Chinese characters. The original Chinese characters in Kojiki and Nihon Shoki don't have significant meanings in most cases aside from pronunciations. It's just like for example, "for you" may be sometimes written as "4 u" but "4 u" has no meaning aside from its pronunciation. In short, it is in a sense transliteration employing Chinese characters. Furthermore, the meanings of many proper nouns (persons' names) in Kojiki and Nihon Shoki are totally unknown.
*Ama-terasu may be translated as "the Heaven-Shining-Great-August-Deity," because "Ama" means Heaven and "terasu" means to shine.
*The meaning of "(Take-haya-)su-sa-no-o(-no-mikito)" is unknown, while it might be literally translated as "His (Brave-Swift-)impetuous-Male(-Augustness)" including no meaning.
*The meaning of "(Ame-no-)oshi-ho-mimi(-no-mikoto)" is unknown, while it might be literally translated as "His Augustness Truly-Conquer-I-Conqueror-Conquering-Swift-Heavenly-Great-Great-Ears" including no meaning.
* "Kojiki the Oath Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj020.htm

The sons of God Oshi-ho-mimi and Goddess Toyo-aki-tsu-shi-hime(-no-mikoto) (豊秋津師比売命) are Ho-akari (formal name: Ame-no-ho-akari-no-mikoto: 天火明命) the elder and Ni-ni-gi (邇邇芸; strict formal name: Ame-ni-gi-shi-kuni-ni-gi-shi-ama-tsu-hi-ko-hi-ko-ho-no-ni-ni-gi-no-mikoto: 天邇岐志国邇岐志天津日高日子番能邇邇芸命) the younger. At the beginning, Ashi-hara-naka-tsu-kuni (葦原中国; literally: "Central Land of Reed Plain" or "Reed Plain Central Country"; defined as the land of humankind) was ruled by Oo-kuni-nushi (another name: Oonamuchi). However, as the result of the wrestling of Take-mi-kazuchi and Take-mi-na-kata, Oo-kuni-nushi peacefully abdicated.
*The meanings of Take-mi-kazuchi and Take-mi-na-kata are unknown, while they might be literally translated as "the Brave-Awful-Possessing-Male-Deity" and "the Deity Brave-August-Name-Firm" including no meanings.
* "Kojiki Abdication of the Master of the Great Land Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj039.htm
*The meaning of "Oo-kuni-nushi" is "Master of the Great Land."
Ni-ni-gi was authorized to rule Ashi-hara-nakatsu-kuni and he came from Tak-ama-ga-hara though he was the younger. (His elder brother is Ho-akari.)
*The strict formal name of Ni-ni-gi is "Ame-ni-gi-shi-kuni-ni-gi-shi-ama-tsu-hi-ko-hi-ko-ho-no- ni-ni-gi-no-mikoto" or "Ame-ni-ki-shi-kuni-ni-ki-shi-ama-tsu-hi-taka-hi-ko-ho-no-ni-ni-gi-no-mikoto": "天邇岐志国邇岐志天津日高日子番能邇邇芸命."
*The meaning of "Ni-ni-gi" is unknown, while it might be literally translated as "His August ness Heaven-Plenty-Earth-Plenty-Heaven's-Sun-Height-Prince-Rice-ear-Ruddy-Plenty" or "His Augustness Prince-Rice-ear-Ruddy-Plenty" including no meaning.
*"ame" and "ama" mean "heaven." "kuni" means "country." "taka-hi-ko" means "high-sun-child."
*The meaning of "Ho-akari" is also unknown, while it might be literraly translated as "His Augustness-Heavenly-Rice-ear-Ruddy" including no meaning.
* "Kojiki the August Descent Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj040.htm
* "Kojiki the August Reign Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj041.htm
Oo-kuni-nushi peacefully left Ashi-hara-naka-tsu-Kuni and got a large palace in other location Izu-mo. (Canaan is spelled KNEN (kaf-nun-ayin-nun) and reed is spelled QNH (qof-nun-he) in Hebrew.)
Ni-ni-gi met a beautiful girl, Kono-hana-saku-ya-hime, and intended to marry her. However, her father Oo-yama-tsu-mi requested Ni-ni-gi to marry both beautiful Kono-hana-saku-ya-hime and her elder disadvantageous (homely) sister Iwa-naga-hime. Humans were cursed to live short, because Ni-ni-gi rejected Iwa-naga-hime. Then Kono-hana-saku-ya-hime is the symbol of short life. Kono-hana-saku-ya-hime got pregnancy. However, she was doubted adultery by Ni-ni-gi. So she bore 3 children in difficult circumstance (in fire) to testify her innocence. According to Kojiki, their first son is Ho-deri. The second son is Ho-su-se-ri. The third youngest son is Ho-o-ri.
*"Kono-hana-saku-ya-hime" may be translated as "Princess-Blossoming-Brilliantly-Like-the-Flowers-of-the-Trees."
*"Iwa-naga-hime" may be translated as "Princess-Long-as-the-Rocks."
*"Oo-yama-tsu-mi" may be translated as "The Deity-Great-Mountain-Possessor."
*"Kojiki the Curse of the Deity Great Mountain Possessor Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj044.htm
*"Kojiki the August Child Bearing of Princess Blossoming Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj045.htm
Hoori was bullied by his elder brother Hoderi and exiled to other country. Yet, Hoori married Toyotamahime, the daughter of the Deity. Subsequently, Hoderi suffered from poverty, Hoori helped Hoderi, and Hoderi submitted to Hoori. The son of Hoori is U-ga-ya-fuki-ae-zu (U-ka-ya-fuki-ae-zu).
*The meaning of Ugayafukiaezu is unknown, while it might be literally translated as "his Augustness Heaven's-Sun-Height-Prince-Wave-limit-Brave- Cormorant-Thatch-Meeting-Incompletely" including no meaning.
The four sons of Ugayafukiaezu are Itsuse, Inahi, Mikenu, and Waka-mikenu (later Kamu-yamato-ihare-biko: Emperor Jimmu).
*The meaning of "Itsuse" is unknown, while it might be literally translated as "His Augustness Five-Reaches."
*The meaning of "Inahi" is unknown, while it might be literally translated as "His Augustness Boiled-Rice" including no meaning.
*The meaning of "Mikenu" is unknown, while it might be literally translated as "His Augustness August-Food-Master" including no meaning.
*"Waka-mikenu" may be translated as "His Augustness Young-August-Food-Master" including no meaning.
*The meaning of the other name of Waka-mikenu, "Kamu-yamato-ihare-biko-sumera-mikoto" is unknown in Japanese language, while it might be literally translated as "His Augustness Divine-Yamato-Ihare-Prince."
* "Kojiki the August Exchange of Luck Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj046.htm
* "Kojiki the Palace of the Ocean Possessor Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj047.htm
* "Kojiki Submission of His Augustness Fire-Shine Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj048.htm
* "Kojiki the Parturition-House of Cormorant's Feathers Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj049.htm
* "Kojiki the August Children of His Augustness Cormorant-Thatch-Meeting-Invompletely" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj050.htm

2.3.9.2.2.3 From Moses to Joshua

On the other hand, Moses chose his wife from 7 girls. Moses advanced to the northeast with his elder brother Aaron and colleagues for many years. They detoured (at "Kadesh") to the southeast just before the destination and his elder brother died due to his unfaithfulness to God. Subsequently they advanced to the north, met animals (serpents), many slldiers fell down, but recovered with something like a stick. The new leader Joshua was designated. They reached the destination and defeated a lot of enemies.
*"Now Moses sent messengers from Kadesh to the king of Edom. 'Thus says your brother Israel: "You know all the hardship that has befallen us, "'" (Num 20:14).
*"'Please let us pass through your country. We will not pass through fields or vineyards, nor will we drink water from wells; we will go along the King's Highway; we will not turn aside to the right hand or to the left until we have passed through your territory'" (Num 20:17).
*"Thus Edom refused to give Israel passage through his territory; so Israel turned away from him" (Num 20:21).
*The accurate route of Exodus and locations are not specified. Some theories are suggested, while Edom is on the south of the Dead Sea anyway.


* "Ancient Exodus" http://www.ancientexodus.com/
* "The Exodus Route" http://www.bible.ca/archeology/bible-archeology-exodus-route-travel-times-distances-days.htm
*"Now the children of Israel, the whole congregation, journeyed from Kadesh and came to Mount Hor. And the Lord spoke to Moses and Aaron in Mount Hor by the border of the land of Edom, saying: 'Aaron shall be gathered to his people, for he shall not enter the land which I have given to the children of Israel, because you rebelled against My word at the water of Meribah'" (Num 20:22-24).
*"Moses stripped Aaron of his garments and put them on Eleazar his son; and Aaron died there on the top of the mountain. Then Moses and Eleazar came down from the mountain" (Num 20:28).
*"Then they journeyed from Mount Hor by the Way of the Red Sea, to go around the land of Edom; and the soul of the people became very discouraged on the way. And the people spoke against God and against Moses: 'Why have you brought us up out of Egypt to die in the wilderness? For there is no food and no water, and our soul loathes this worthless bread.' So the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and many of the people of Israel died. Therefore the people came to Moses, and said, 'We have sinned, for we have spoken against the Lord and against you; pray to the Lord that He take away the serpents from us.' So Moses prayed for the people. Then the Lord said to Moses, 'Make a fiery serpent, and set it on a pole; and it shall be that everyone who is bitten, when he looks at it, shall live.' So Moses made a bronze serpent, and put it on a pole; and so it was, if a serpent had bitten anyone, when he looked at the bronze serpent, he lived" (Num 21:4-9).
*"Now the children of Israel moved on and camped in Oboth. And they journeyed from Oboth and camped at Ije Abarim, in the wilderness which is east of Moab, toward the sunrise. From there they moved and camped in the Valley of Zered. From there they moved and camped on the other side of the Arnon, which is in the wilderness that extends from the border of the Amorites; for the Arnon is the border of Moab, between Moab and the Amorites" (Num 21:10-13).
*Moab is on the east of the Dead Sea.
*"Then the children of Israel moved, and camped in the plains of Moab on the side of the Jordan across from Jericho" (Num 22:1).
*"So Moses did as the Lord commanded him. He took Joshua and set him before Eleazar the priest and before all the congregation. And he laid his hands on him and inaugurated him, just as the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses" (Num 27:22-23).
On the other hand, Waka-mikenu (Jimmu) advanced to the northeast (from present-day Miyazaki to Yamato, present-day Nara of Japan) with his elder brother Itsuse and colleagues for many years. They detoured to the southeast just before the destination (from present-day Osaka to present-day Kumano between Wakayama and Mie prefecture) and his elder brother died due to his unfaithfulness to God. Subsequently they advanced to the north, met an animal (a bear), many soldiers fell down, but recovered with something like a stick. The new leader (a crow or a raven: Yatagarasu) was designated. They reached the destination (present Nara) and defeated a lot of enemies. Wakamikenu (Jimmu) chose his wife (I-suke-yori-hime) from 7 girls.
* "Kojiki Reign of the Emperor Jimmu 1 Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj051.htm
* "Kojiki Emperor Jimmu 2 Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj052.htm
* "Kojiki Emperor Jimmu 3 Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj053.htm
* "Kojiki Emperor Jimmu 8 He Weds I-suke-yori-hime Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj058.htm
* "King Jimmu to Eastern Invasion" http://www.furutasigaku.jp/efuruta/jimmue/jimmue.html
(The accurate start point according to Kojiki is near Hyuga rather than Tsukushi in this map. )



2.3.9.2.2.4 From the Judges to Solomon

After the era of the Judges, the Israelites designated tall and handsome Saul the first king of ancient Israel. But Saul became unfaithful, listened to harp of David in the palace, and died in the battle. The Israelites designated David the second king of ancient Israel. David took a sensus after 3 years' famine, defeated many other tribes, and battled at Edom and Mount Seir.
*"And so it was, whenever the spirit from God was upon Saul, that David would take a harp and play it with his hand. Then Saul would become refreshed and well, and the distressing spirit would depart from him" (1Sa 16:23).
*"And David made himself a name when he returned from killing eighteen thousand Syrians in the Valley of Salt. He also put garrisons in Edom; throughout all Edom he put garrisons, and all the Edomites became David's servants. And the Lord preserved David wherever he went" (2Sa 8:13-14). .
*"Then Esau took his wives, his sons, his daughters, and all the persons of his household, his cattle and all his animals, and all his goods which he had gained in the land of Canaan, and went to a country away from the presence of his brother Jacob. For their possessions were too great for them to dwell together, and the land where they were strangers could not support them because of their livestock. So Esau dwelt in Mount Seir. Esau is Edom. And this is the genealogy of Esau the father of the Edomites in Mount Seir" (Gen 36:6-9).
The third king Solomon, the son of David, founded the Solomon's temple in Jerusalem and digged ponds. He had a dream that God promised long life if he keeps the commandments.
*"Now Solomon began to build the house of the Lord at Jerusalem on Mount Moriah, where the Lord had appeared to his father David, at the place that David had prepared on the threshing floor of Ornan the Jebusite" (2Ch 3:1).
*"I made myself water pools from which to water the growing trees of the grove" (Ecc 2:6).
*"The speech pleased the Lord, that Solomon had asked this thing. Then God said to him: 'Because you have asked this thing, and have not asked long life for yourself, nor have asked riches for yourself, nor have asked the life of your enemies, but have asked for yourself understanding to discern justice, behold, I have done according to your words; see, I have given you a wise and understanding heart, so that there has not been anyone like you before you, nor shall any like you arise after you. And I have also given you what you have not asked: both riches and honor, so that there shall not be anyone like you among the kings all your days. So if you walk in My ways, to keep My statutes and My commandments, as your father David walked, then I will lengthen your days.' Then Solomon awoke; and indeed it had been a dream. And he came to Jerusalem and stood before the ark of the covenant of the Lord, offered up burnt offerings, offered peace offerings, and made a feast for all his servants" (1Ki 3:10-15).
On the other hand, descriptions in Kojiki from the 2nd through 9th Emperors (, which might correspond to the Judges) are simplified.
The 10th Emperor Sujin took a sensus after 3 years' disaster (according to Nihon Shoki) and battled at "mountain Shiro (Yamashiro)" and "Idomi (Idzumi)."
The 11th Emperor Suinin made his son, Inishi-no-iri, dig many pools, and his daughter Yamato-Hime found the first temple at Ise, and (according to Nihon Shoki) had the divine message (from the God Yamato) to promise his long lifespan if he keeps the commandments.
The 14th Emperor Chuai was tall and handsome. However, he didn't believe the divine messages and suddenly died playing the harp (lute).
* "Kojiki Emperor Sujin Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj073.htm
* "Nihon Shoki Emperor Sujin Wikidot" http://nihonshoki.wikidot.com/scroll-5-sujin
* "Kojiki Emperor Sui-nin Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj076.htm
* "Nihon Shoki Emperir Suinin Wikidot" http://nihonshoki.wikidot.com/6-suinin
* "Kojiki Emperor Chiu-ai Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj103.htm

2.3.9.2.2.5 Genesis

A scholar claims 5 Deities at the beginning of Kojiki correspond to various designations of Yahweh in the Bible. Ame-no-mi-naka-nushi-no-kami corresponds to the God of Abraham. Taka-mi-mu-su-hi-no-kami corresponds to the God of Isaac. Kami-mu-su-hi-no-kami to the God of Israel (Jacob) (Exo 3:6). U-ma-shi-a-shi-ka-bi-hi-ko-ji-no-kami to God of Canaan (Gen 17:8). Ame-no-toko-tachi-no-kami to "I AM WHO I AM" (Exo 3:14) or "Who was and is and is to come" (Rev 4:8).
*"Moreover He said, 'I am the God of your father- the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God" (Exo 3:6).
*"Also I give to you and your descendants after you the land in which you are a stranger, all the land of Canaan, as an everlasting possession; and I will be their God" (Gen 17:8).
*"The four living creatures, each having six wings, were full of eyes around and within. And they do not rest day or night, saying: 'Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, Who was and is and is to come!'" (Rev 4:8).
*"Amenominakanushinokami" may be translated as "the Deity Master-of-the-August-Centre-of- Heaven."
*"Takamimusuhinokami" may be translated as "the High-August-Producing-Wondrous Deity."
*"Kamimusuhinokami" may be translated as "the Divine-Producing-Wondrous-Deity."
*"Umashiashikabihikojinokami" may be translated as "the Pleasant-Reed-Shoot-Prince-Elder Deity," since "ashi" is "reed." (QNH is reed in Hebrew while Canaan is KN'N in Hebrew.)
*"Amenotokotachinokami" may be translated as "the Heavenly-Eternally-Standing-Deity."
* "Kojiki the Beginning of Heaven and Earth Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj008.htm
The succeeding 7 generations correspond to the 7 days of the creation.
* "Kojiki the Seven Divine Generations Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj009.htm
"I-za-na-gi" and "I-za-na-mi" correspond to Adam and Eve.
"They were not good because the woman spoke first," which the Heavenly Deities said, corresponds to Eve's suggestion.
*"Izanagi" might be translated as "His Augustness the Male-Who-Invites."
*"Izanami" might be translated as "Her Augustness the Female-Who-Invites."
* "Kojiki Birth of the Eight Islands Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj012.htm

2.3.9.2.2.6 Crucifixion

By the way, "Amaterasu" hid in a cave, shut with a rock, and the land got dark. But afterward the cave opened. This corresponds to the description of the Crucifixion, which made the land dark as in Matthew 27:45, the cave where Christ was buried was shut with a rock, but opened afterward.
"Now from the sixth hour until the ninth hour there was darkness over all the land" (Mat 27:45).
"Now when the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour" (Mar 15:33).
"Now it was about the sixth hour, and there was darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour" (Luk 23:44).
"and laid it in his new tomb which he had hewn out of the rock; and he rolled a large stone against the door of the tomb, and departed" (Mat 27:60).
* "Kojiki the Door of the Heavenly Rock-Dwelling Sacred Texts" http://www.sacred-texts.com/shi/kj/kj023.htm






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