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2.3.9.4 Origin of Jomon People

Outline of Japanese Ancient History
As mentioned before, the other character is Jomon people (Jyomon people).
According to traditional Japanese history, it would be categorized, in ascending order, into "Paleolithic period" (-14000 BCE), "Ancient period" (Jomon period (14000-300 BCE), Yayoi period (300 BCE-250 CE), Kofun period (250-540 CE)), "Classical period" (Asuka period (540-710 CE), Nara priod (710-793 CE), and Heian period (794-1185 CE)).
With regard to the Paleolithic period ends in the end of the last ice age around 14000 BCE, some stone axes are found. The ancient period (somewhat cultural) after the Paleolithic period would be categorized into 3 periods. The first ancient period after the Paleolithic period is the Jomon (Jyomon) period lasted around 14000-300 BCE on speculation. The 2nd ancient period is the Yayoi period lasted around 300 BCE-250 CE on speculation. The 3rd ancient period is the Kofun period lasted around 250-540 CE on speculation.
* "History of Japan in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Japan

Jomon and Yayoi
The term "Jomon" (縄文; literally: rope (cord) pattern) came from its rope (cord)-patterned pottery, possibly one of the oldest potteries in the world dates back to around 13000 BCE on speculation. The Jomon period is featured by "Jomon potteries" and "Jomon people."
The subsequent Yayoi period is featured by "Yayoi potteries" excavated at present-day Yayoi (弥生) town in Tokyo, "Ironware," and "Yayoi people."
* "Jomon Period in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%C5%8Dmon_period
* "Yayoi Period in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yayoi_period

Dual Structure Model
Origin of Japanese population has been controversial. Still, the predominant theory would be Hanihara Kazuo's "Dual Structure Model." The theory claims the 1st predominant ethnic group in the Japanese archipelago is "Jomon people" from southeastern Asia and the 2nd group moved to the Japanese archipelago from northeastern Asia mostly through the Korean Peninsula and Kyushu from about 300 BCE. (Kyushu is the extreme southwest island among the 4 main islands of the Japanese archipelago neighbor of the Korean Peninsula.)
He claimed it, because for one thing, skulls of the Jomon period (such as fossil humans of Tsukumo, Okayama) have wide faces like skulls of southern Chinese, and skulls of the Yayoi period (such as fossil humans of Doi-ga-hama, Yamaguchi) have long faces like skulls of northern Chinese.
Secondly, actually present-day Japanese people would be categorized into 2 types. One type is wide-faced people representatively Ainu people in Hokkaido and Okinawan (Ryukyuan) in Okinawa. (Hokkaido is the extreme northeast island among the 4 main islands of the Japanese archipelago. Okinawa is a southwestern small island distant from the 4 main islands.) Present-day people in the northeastern region of Japan, representatively Ainu people, are generally featured by wide and chiseled faces, stout and thickly haired bodies including eyebrows and beards. The other type is long-faced people representatively in northern Kyushu and the western region of Honshu (the largest main island of the Japanese archipelago) such as Fukuoka and Hiroshima. Present-day people in the western region of Japan such as Fukuoka and Hiroshima are generally featured by long and flat faces, single-edged eyelids, slender and thinly haired bodies. The wide-faced people correspond to fossil Jomon people, and the long-faced people correspond to fossil Yayoi people. The Dual Structure Model claims wide-faced Jomon people first moved to the Japanese archipelago mostly from southeastern Asia, long-faced Yayoi people with ironware moved from northeastern Asia mostly through the Korean Peninsula from about 300 BCE, dominated the western region of Japan, and Jomon people were drove away to the northeastern region such as Hokkaido or the southwestern region such as Okinawa.
* "Jomon face (縄文顔) and Yayoi face (弥生顔)" http://www.yoshinogari.jp/ym/episode03/img/img03.jpg
* "Japanese People in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_people
* "Ainu People in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ainu_people
* "Ryukyuan People in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryukyuan_people



Genetic Examination
The theory that the former inhabitants (Jomon people) were expelled outward from Kyushu is clearly supported by Y-DNA genetic study involving males. That is, frequencies of Y-DNA haplogroup D rise depending on the distance from the Korean Peninsula or northern Kyushu. For instance, frequency of Y-DNA haplogroup D in the Korean Peninsula is 0-4%, western Japan: 27%, central-eastern Japan (Kanto region): 48%, Okinawa (southwestern isolated island): 56%, Ainu in Hokkaido: 88%. On the other hand, the theory that the Jomon people came from southeastern Asia is totally denied by Y-DNA study. That is, Y-DNA haplogroup D is exclusively absent in central-southern-southeastern-eastern-northeastern Asia except Japan, Tibet, and the Andaman Islands (between India and Myanmar). As mentioned before, Y-DNA haplogroup D or the YAP mutation is exclusively associated with Tibet, the Andaman Islands, the Middle East, and so forth.
* "Y-DNA Haplogroups by Populations of East and Southeast Asia in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y-DNA_haplogroups_by_populations_of_East_and_Southeast_Asia
With regard to females, the theory that the former inhabitants (Jomon women) were expelled outward from Kyushu couldn't be clarified by genetic study, because distributions of mtDNA haplogroups of Ainu and other Japanese population are similar and not distinctive. For instance, as mentioned before, the composition of mtDNA haplogroups of Ainu is rather similar to that of average Japanese people. Although 22% haplogroup Y is seen in Ainu, 66 % haplogroup Y seen in Nivkh people in Sakhalin Island (on the north of Ainu's Hokkaido) accounts for it.

A Possible Story
Then integrating various circumstances, the following story would emerge.
The Paleolithic period is uncertain. Male ancestors of Jomon people with the YAP mutation, wide chiseled faces, stout thickly haired body, thick eyebrows, and thick beards moved to eastern Asia without female companions. (It seems they were not accompanied by females, since present-day Japanese mtDNA is basically eastern Asia origin and not particularly associated with the west.) (It seems male ancestors quickly moved from the west to eastern Asia.) (Y-DNA haplogroup D in Tibet and the Andaman Islands might be branched groups on the way.) Then the male ancestors picked up eastern Asian females and moved into the Japanese archipelago. They are later called Jomon people and created Jomon culture BCE. Subsequently, eastern Asian people (males and females) (without the YAP mutation) with ironware, long flat faces, single-edged eyelids, and slender thinly haired bodies moved to the Japanese archipelago through the Korean Peninsula. They are later called Yayoi people, expelled Jomon people far from Kyushu, and created Yayoi culture. Jomon people were expelled to the northeast (Hokkaido and so forth) or southwest (Okinawa) from Kyushu. Jomon people isolated in Hokkaido are later called Ainu people. Jomon people somewhat isolated in Okinawa are later called Okinawan or Ryukyuan. (On the other hand, some northern Nivkh people represented by mtDNA haplogroup Y may have moved to Hokkaido and mixed with Ainu.) Then Jewish Hata clan moved from central Asia to Kyushu around 600 CE. As mentioned before, Book of Sui reports Hata kingdom (region) around Kyushu around 607 CE. The Jewish group shortly took hegemony in Japan ("Wa" at that time), founded a new nation Japan, and fabricated Shinto around 700 CE.






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