Disclaimer: This is Totally Untrue.


2.4.11 Rockefeller Era 3

2.4.11.1 Overview

The Pyramids' mystery started to be deciphered.
On the other hand, crucial technologies arose.

2.4.11.2 Details

2.4.11.2.1 Orion's Belt and Sphinx Age of Leo Theory around 1996 CE

2.4.11.2.1.1 Orion and 10500 BCE

As mentioned before in reference to the Yellow Book, which could be written by a J-Rod around 1972 CE, J-Rods' visit to the Earth around 10000 BCE and the correlation between the 3 Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx, the Nile, Orion's Belt, and the Age of Leo around 10000 BCE might be secretly pointed out by the J-Rod around 1972 CE.

On the other hand, a similar theory was publicly presented by Robert Bauval around 1985 CE. He purportedly advocated Pyramids Orion Correlation Theory around 1985 CE. It pointed out that the layout of the 3 Great Pyramids of Giza might be an imitation of the stars of the constellation Orion's Belt. The layout of the Orion's Belt as of 2000 CE somewhat differs from the layout of the 3 Great Pyramids of Giza. However, according to the theory, since layout of stars changes during a long period of time, the layout of Orion's Belt as of 10500 BCE matches the layout of the 3 Great Pyramids of Giza. It might imply that the Pyramids were constructed around 10500 BCE in contrast to the commonly accepted theory that the Pyramids were constructed around 2500 BCE.

Giza Pyramid Complex
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Giza_pyramid_complex_(map).svg
* "Giza Pyramid Complex in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giza_pyramid_complex


Star Map of Orion
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Orion_IAU.svg
* "Orion (Constellation) in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_(constellation)

2.4.11.2.1.2 Orion and 2500 BCE

Another theory by Bauval is Shaft-Pointing Theory, which claims Khufu's Pyramid's shafts point prominent stars of 2500 BCE. As shown below, the Great Pyramid of Giza (Khufu's Pyramid) has 2 small rooms, "King's Chamber" and "Queen's Chamber." 2 straight narrow tunnels like air ducts (20 cm x 20 cm) ascend (to the left) accurately to the southward and similarly ascend (to the right) accurately to the northward from "King's Chamber" and "Queen's Chamber" respectively. The tunnels are called "shafts."
The (right side) northern shafts of the King's Chamber and the Queen's Chamber point spots rotating around the celestial pole and the polar star as of 2000 CE. The inclination angle of the northern shaft of the King's Chamber is about 32°, the inclination angle of the northern shaft of the Queen's Chamber is about 38°, while the inclination wouldn't be specified in detail because the shafts are not rigorously straight. The inclination angle of the southern shaft of the King's Chamber is about 45°. The inclination angle of the southern shaft of the Queen's Chamber is about 38°. On the other hand, the Great Pyramid of Giza is located at north latitude 30°. Then the northern shaft of the King's Chamber is inclined 2° upward against Earth's rotation axis or the north celestial pole. The northern shaft of the Queen's Chamber is inclined 8° upward against Earth's rotation axis or the north celestial pole.
Similarly, the (left side) southern shaft of the King's Chamber is inclined 105° upward against Earth's rotation axis or the north celestial pole, 15° southward against the equatorial plane. The southern shaft of the Queen's Chamber is inclined 112° upward against Earth's rotation axis or the north celestial pole, 22° southward against the equatorial plane.


Schematic cross-section of the Great Pyramid: 1. Original entrance 2. Robber's tunnel 3. Granite blocks 4. Descending Passage 5. Lower Chamber 6. Ascending Passage 7. Queen's Chamber and shafts/vents 8. Horizontal Passage and shafts/vents 9. Grand Gallery 10. King's Chamber 11. Anteroom 12. Greave's Shaft
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cheops-Pyramid.svg


The Angles of the Great Pyramid and the Shafts in reference to the Earth

The spots pointed on a sky map rotate around the celestial pole in a day, because the Earth rotates once in a day. The traces of the spots as of 2000 CE would be shown like below in green lines, while the meaning of the traces is unclear.

Traces of the Northern Shafts (2° and 8°) around the North Celestial Pole of 2000 CE
(The purple dot at the center denotes the North Celestial Pole.)
*Attribution: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navigational-stars-north.svg


Traces of the Southern Shafts (-15° and -22°) near the Celestial Equator of 2000 CE
(The purple line passing through 0° denotes the Celestial Equator.)
*Attribution: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bowditch-equatorial-stars.svg

However, the meaning would be deciphered introducing Earth's precession.
According to the view from the North (Polar) Star, the Earth rotates counterclockwise with a period of a day, and revolves counterclockwise with a period of a year. Other than that, Earth's rotation axis slowly rotates clockwise with a period of 25,920 years. This is Earth's precession. According to astrology, 25,920 years are divided into 12 periods (12 x 2,160 years) and 12 constellations are assigned to respectively.

*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Earth_precession.svg

On the other hand, the Solar System revolves in the Milkyway Galaxy around the Galactic Center as shown below, to be precise.



Going into detail, as far as the View from the North Pole of Earth's Revolution, the northward axis of Earth rotation inclined to the Galactic Center around 11000 BCE or 10500 BCE. However, the northward axis rotates 90 degrees clockwise during 6,500 years reaching around 4500 BCE. The northward axis further rotates 28 degrees clockwise during the next 2,000 years reaching around 2500 BCE, further rotates 62 degrees clockwise during the next 4,500 years, and it inclines opposite to the Galactic Center around 2000 CE. (The direction of the constellation Orion is added for further reference.)








*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Earth_axial_precession.svg

* "Axial Precession in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axial_precession

According to the view from the Earth, the North Celestial Pole moves on a circle as time goes by as shown below. The North Celestial Pole is near Thuban around 2500 BCE. (The red mark at the center is the North Pole of Earth's Revolution.)

*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Precession_N.gif

Then simulating the traces of the shafts as of 2500 BCE, it becomes like below, the traces pass through prominent stars, Thuban, Kochab, Sirius, and Orion's Belt. (2500 BCE is the time when the Pyramid was assumed to be constructed according to the accepted theory.)


Traces of the Northern Shafts (2° and 8°) around the North Celestial Pole of 2500 BCE
(The purple dot at the center denotes the North Celestial Pole.)

Enlarged View
*Attribution: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navigational-stars-north.svg


Traces of the Southern Shafts (-15° and -22°) near the Celestial Equator of 2500 BCE
(The purple line denotes the Celestial Equator.)

Enlarged View
*Attribution: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bowditch-equatorial-stars.svg

*The astronomical significance of Thuban and Kochab would be that they were nearly the north celestial pole around 2500 BCE. Specifically, since the north celestial pole moves because of Earth's precession, Thuban was the nearest north pole star around 2900 BCE, Kochab was the nearest north pole star around 1000 BCE. (Thuban would be the nearest north pole star as of 2500 BCE. However, Thuban is quite dark, then Kochab could be the alternative reference as of 2500 BCE.)

*Astronomical significance of Sirius would be that it is the brightest star in the sky except for the sun, while astronomical significance of Orion would be unclear.
*Religious significance of Sirius and Orion would be as follows.
Sirius was called Sothis in Greek, while Sopdet would be the goddess of Sirius in ancient Egyptian. The religious significance of Sirius (Sothis) would be that as seen in the Pyramid Texts, Sirius commonly corresponds to Isis, Osiris' sister and wife, in Egyptian mythology, while Orion commonly corresponds to Osiris, the god of resurrection, and Horus is their son in Egyptian mythology.
The Pyramid Texts are a collection of carved funerary texts on religious relics created purportedly about from 2400 BCE to 2100 BCE around Saqqara near Memphis.
Line 632, Utterance 366 of the Pyramid Texts states as follows identifying Horus' mother Isis with Sothis (Sirius).
"Thy sister comes to thee, rejoicing for love of thee. Thou hast placed her on thy phallus, that thy seed may go into her, (while) it is pointed like Sothis. Horus the pointed has come forth from thee as Horus who was in Sothis." (Utterance 366, Pyramid Texts)
Sah would be the god of the constellation Orion in ancient Egyptian. Line 819, Utterance 442 of the Pyramid Texts states as follows identifying Osiris with Sah (the constellation Orion).
"Behold, he is come (again) as Sah; behold, Osiris is come as Sah." (Utterance 442, Pyramid Texts)
* "Pyramid Texts in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pyramid_Texts
* "Sacred Texts Pyramid Texts 16. UTTERANCES ON THE HEREAFTER, 350-374." http://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/pyt/pyt19.htm
* "Sacred Texts Pyramid Texts 20. SOME LARGELY OSIRIAN, UTTERANCES 436-442." http://www.sacred-texts.com/egy/pyt/pyt23.htm
* "Sothis in Wiktionary" https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Sothis
* "Sopdet in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sopdet
* "Sah in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sah_(god)


Pyramids along the Nile
*Attribution: © OpenStreetMap contributors

*Since the Great Pyramid of Giza is assumed corresponding to Orion's Belt, it is natural that something of the Great Pyramid of Giza should point Orion's Belt. The southern shaft of the King's Chamber pointing Orion's Belt as of 2500 BCE is the matter of primary importance. Yet, the basic question is that why the Great Pyramid of Giza with such elaborate shafts was constructed particularly in reference to Orion and Osiris though Osiris was miserably killed by his brother and staying in the underworld and why the Great Pyramid of Giza implies 2500 BCE.

Shafts of the Great Pyramid
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cheops-Pyramid.svg

* "Thuban in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thuban
* "Beta Ursae Minoris (Kochab) in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beta_Ursae_Minoris

Contrary to the Orion's Belt theory, which implies that the Great Pyramids including Khufu's Pyramid were constructed around 10500 BCE, Khufu's Pyramid Shaft-Pointing theory might imply that Khufu's Pyramid was constructed around 2500 BCE like the commonly accepted theory. (Desposition of stars ranging over 10500 BCE and 2500 BCE might suggests extremely high astronomy of Egyptian ETs (Egyptian Gods), which have changed from Sumer and Mesopotamia.)

2.4.11.2.1.3 Sphinx and 10500 BCE (Age of Leo)

Subsequently, Graham Hancock joined and the theory linked to the Sphinx's Age of Leo Theory around 1996 CE in "The Message of the Sphinx."
They noted that Pyramids along the Nile could be the imitation of Stars layout along the Milky Way. The primary key issue was the Sphinx staring east at the foot of the Great Pyramids of Giza.
* "Orion Correlation Theory in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_correlation_theory
* "The Message of the Sphinx" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Message_of_the_Sphinx



Sphinx
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Great_Sphinx_of_Giza_-_20080716a.jpg
* "Sphinx in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphinx
The meaning of the Sphinx with human face could be deciphered viewing the sky chart in the evening of the Vernal Equinox at Giza as of 2000 CE in Age of Aquarius, for now. Giza is located latitude 30°N, longitude 31°E. Calculating Coordinated Universal Time at longitude of 0° to avoid local time or zone time modification, 18:00 in the evening at Giza (longitude: 31°E) corresponds to 15:56 at longitude 0°. Then entering Day: 20, Month: 03, Hour: 15, Min: 56, E.Longitude: 0 deg, N.Latitude: 30 deg, E. Time Zone: 0 hours, and Submit in the following website, the star chart at Giza at 18:00 on the Vernal (March) Equinox emerges. In this sky chart at Giza at 18:00 on the Vernal (March) Equinox, the head of the constellation Leo is seen on the eastern horizon over the Nile, where the Sphinx is staring.
"Monthly Sky Maps" http://astroclub.tau.ac.il/skymaps/monthly/index.php
However, as mentioned above, the disposition of Orion's Belt as of 10500 BCE accurately corresponds to the disposition of the 3 Great Pyramids of Giza rather than around 2000 CE.
The other issue was that necessity of the Sphinx and the constellation Leo at the foot of the Pyramids was unclear. They were deciphered introducing astrology and zodiac, which might have originated (could have been given) in ancient Sumer or Mesopotamia, and Astrological age, which is up to the precession of the Earth's axis of rotation.
* "Zodiac in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zodiac
According to the astrology, the period of Earth's precession 25,920 years is divided into 12 periods (12 x 2,160 years) and 12 constellations are assigned to respectively.
The constellation located in the direction from the Earth to the Sun on the Vernal (March) Equinox is the constellation of the period. Since Earth's rotation axis rotates 30° every 2,160 years, the assigned constellation changes every 2,160 years.

Directions of major constellations and stars as of 2000 CE are indicated in the following charts. "R: 00h" denotes Right Ascension 00h. "D: + 30°" denotes Declination + 30°.
As far as Northern Hemisphere's Star Map assumed from the North Pole of Earth's Revolution, orange dots denote northern hemisphere constellations and stars (Declination is + (plus)), yellow dots denote southern hemisphere constellations and stars (Declination is - (minus)).
As far as Southern Hemisphere's Star Map assumed from the North Pole of Earth's Revolution, orange dots denote southern hemisphere constellations and stars (Declination is - (minus)), yellow dots denote northern hemisphere constellations and stars (Declination is + (plus)).

For example, the direction from the Earth to the Sun on the Vernal (March) Equinox as of 2000 CE is R: 00 h, roughly between the constellation Pisces and Aquarius. Specifically, according to Rael, the Astrological age changed from Pisces to Aquarius in 1946 CE. Another example is, the direction from the Earth to the Sun on the Vernal Equinox as of 4500 BCE is R: 06h, to the constellation Taurus. The direction from the Earth to the Sun on the Vernal Equinox as of 11000 BCE is R: 12h, roughly between the constellation Virgo and Leo.
Specifically, considering Rael's Astrological age theory, Aquarius could be 1946-4105 CE, Pisces could be 214 BCE-1945 CE, Aries 2374 BCE-215 BCE, Taurus 4534 BCE-2375 BCE, Gemini 6694 BCE-4535 BCE, Cancer 8854 BCE-6695 BCE, and Leo 11014 BCE-8855 BCE.
Then 11000 and 10500 BCE correspond to the Age of Leo. As mentioned above, the age when the disposition of the Orion's Belt accurately correspond to the disposition of the 3 Great Pyramids of Giza, it was 10500 BCE, the Age of Leo.
Other than that, since the direction of Leo is 180° opposite to Aquarius, the time when the constellation Leo arises on the eastern horizon on the Vernal Equinox is opposite. The constellation Leo arises at 6:00 with the Sun on the eastern horizon on the Vernal Equinox in the Age of Leo. Then, since the constellation Leo could be the representative constellation at the time, the Age of Leo (around 10500 BCE) would be represented as the Sphinx. Yet, the meaning of the face of the Sphinx should be deciphered.

2.4.11.2.1.4 Orion's Culmination Altitude from the Age of Leo to the Age of Aquarius

Khufu's Pyramid corresponds to Alnitak (Zeta Orions) of Orion's Belt. The Direction of Alnitak as of 2000 CE is "Right ascension: 05h 41m, Declination: -02°." Since Earth's rotation axis rotates 30° (02h) every 2,160 years, Alnitak's Right ascension becomes 06h around 2350 CE. At this time, the North Pole and the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth incline nearest to Alnitak. (The inclination opposite to the Galactic Center as of 2000 CE is depicted above adding the direction of the constellation Orion.) Then Alnitak's Culmination Altitude (upward angle when an object passes through a meridian) at Giza becomes maximum around 2350 CE. In contrast, since Earth's rotation axis rotates 180° (12h) every 12,960 years, Alnitak's Right ascention was 18h around 10610 BCE. At that time, the North Pole and the Northern Hemisphere of the Earth inclined furthest opposite to Alnitak. Then Alnitak's Culmination Altitude at Giza was minimum around 10610 BCE. (The inclination to the Galactic Center as of 11000 BCE or 10500 BCE is depicted above adding the direction of the constellation Orion.) It means that Orion's Culmination Altitude at Giza rises from 10610 BCE (Age of Leo) to 2350 CE (Age of Aquarius). This could be the significance of 10500 BCE, the Age of Leo, and the Age of Aquarius.
* "Alnitak in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alnitak
* "Culmination in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culmination

2.4.11.2.1.5 Sphinx and Orion

The human face of the Sphinx could be the face of the water carrier in the constellation Aquarius, which would suggest the final stage of Orion's rising.
Yet, the significance of the constellation Orion should be deciphered by Sumerian mythology.
* "Aquarius (Astrology) in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aquarius_(astrology)

2.4.11.2.2 Dolly in February 1997 CE

2.4.11.2.2.1 Background

2.4.11.2.2.1.1 Differentiation

For example, when a fraction (partial cells) of a carrot root is cultivated, the cells increase and change into another carrot with green leaves and green stems. The DNAs of the new carrot is the same as the original carrot's. Other than that, the initial fraction (cells) was carrot's root, but the cells of the new carrot include green leaves' cells and green stems' cells. It means that root's cells partly changed into green leaves' cells and green stems' cells. The root's cells have the ability to change into green leaves' cells or green stems' cells.
* "Carrot Cloning" http://www.sccs.swarthmore.edu/users/00/aphilli1/cpd/lab/callus.html

When the liver of a human is totally damaged, the only way is organ transplant expecting other appropriate (healthy) humans' death. As far as humans, cells of fingers and skin wouldn't change into cells of liver.
However, a fertilized egg (Ovum) in woman's womb causes cell division, the cells increase, change into a morula (on Day 4 with about 20 cells), a Blastocyst (a hollow sphere on Day 5). The outside layer of the Blastocyst is called a trophoblast. The Blastocyst contains Inner Cell Mass. (Inner Cell Mass is also called Embryoblast.) The Blastocyst is implanted into the Uterine Epithelium. Then, in the Uterine Epithelium, the Inner Cell Mass forms two Iayers, the hypoblast and epiblast. (It means that an Embryo starts to be formed after the implantation, to be precise.) The Epiblast changes into Ectoderm. The Hypoblast changes into Endoderm. Mesoderm is formed between the Ectoderm and the Endoderm. Mesoderm spreads. These three layers are called Germ Layers.

Initial Stages of Human Embryogenesis
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:HumanEmbryogenesis.svg

* "Human Embryogenesis in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_embryogenesis

The process forming the three layers is called Gastrulation. As seen in the simplified depiction below, a depression (a hollow) is formed in Gastrulation. The depressed sphere is called a Gastrula.

Formation of Gastrula
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blastula.png
* "Gastrulation in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrulation

The outside of the Gastrula corresponds to the Ectoderm.
The inside of the Gastrula corresponds to the Endoderm.
The intermediate part corresponds to the Mesoderm.
Ectoderm changes into skin cells, nerve cells, or pigment cells, and so on.
Endoderm changes into lung cells, thyroid cells, or digestive cells such as stomach cells, intestine cells, liver cells, and so on.
Mesoderm changes into muscle cells, circulatory cells such as blood vessel cells and blood cells, bone cells, reproductive cells (subsequently spermatozoa cells and ova cells), or connective tissues filling vacant spaces.

Differentiation of Germ Layers
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Germ_layers.jpg

Cells with potential ability changing into other cells (differentiation) and self-renewal ability except fertilized eggs (ova) and morulas is called "Stem Cells," since they are like stems generating leaves and flowers. Cells before changing (with the ability of self-renewal) are generally Stem Cells.

Stem Cell Division and Differentiation.
A: stem cell; B: progenitor cell; C: differentiated cell;
1: symmetric stem cell division; 2: asymmetric stem cell division; 3: progenitor division; 4: terminal differentiation
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Stem_cell_division_and_differentiation.svg

* "Stem Cell in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell

Cells' changing is called "Differentiation." The ability changing (differentiating) is called "Potency."
Self-Renewal means the ability creating and increasing almost the same cells (the same except the length of Telomeres, as mentioned before) through ordinary cell division.

Then cells would be hierarchically categorized mainly as follows from a viewpoint of differentiation and potency.

(Ⅰ) Fertilized Eggs (and 2-cell, 4-cell cleavage cells)
They have the ability conducting self-renewal and changing into (differentiating into) all types of cells including placenta cells. The ability changing into all types of cells including placenta cells is called "Totipotency."

(Ⅱ) Embryonic Stem Cells (ES Cells)
They can be obtained cultivating Inner Cell Mass (Embryoblast) of Blastocyst. They have the ability conducting self-renewal and changing into (differentiating into) all types of cells except placenta cells. The ability changing into all types of cells except placenta cells is called "Pluripotency."
* "Embryonic Stem Cells in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embryonic_stem_cells


Blastocyst
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blastocyst_English.svg

(Ⅲ) Trophoblast Stem Cells (TS Cells)
Blastocyst consists of Inner Cell Mass (Embryoblast) (inside) and Trophoblast (outside). Inner Cell Mass becomes Embryonic Stem Cells, which wouldn't change into the placenta cells. Polar Trophectderm is a part of Trophoblast neighboring Inner Cell Mass. Polar Trophectderm changes into Trophoblast Stem Cells. In contrast to Embryonic Stem Cells, Trophoblast Stem Cells exclusively change into the placenta cells. (They could be in a sense, Unipotency mentioned below.)
* "Trophoblast in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trophoblast
* "PubMed Trophoblast Stem Cells" http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21106963

(Ⅳ) Adult Stem Cells (Somatic Stem Cells)
They have the ability conducting self-renewal and changing into (differentiating into) some types, a few types of cells. The ability changing into some types or a few types of cells is called "Multipotency."
* "Adult Stem Cell in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adult_stem_cell

(Ⅴ) Progenitor Cells
They have the ability conducting self-renewal and changing into (differentiating into) a specified type of cells. (e.g. muscle stem cells changing into muscle cells) The ability changing into a specified type of cells is called "Unipotency."

(Ⅵ) Differentiated Cells (Somatic Cells)
They neither have the ability conducting self-renewal nor changing into (differentiating into) another type of cells. (e.g. muscle cells)

2.4.11.2.2.1.2 Irreversibility of Differentiation

Thus, cells originally hold the ability changing into (differentiating into) any other cells, but the ability (potency) is lost depending on their hierarchical categories. For example, when a cell falls from (Ⅱ) Embryonic Stem Cell (pluripotent) to (Ⅳ) Adult Stem skin Cell (multipotent), it loses ability to become a liver cell.
However, such potency loss wouldn't come from DNA sequences. As mentioned before, DNA sequences are replicated almost the same (except the length of Telomeres) regardless of cell divisions. Then for example, DNA sequences of (Ⅰ) an Fertilized Egg and (Ⅵ) a Differentiated skin Cell are almost the same.

2.4.11.2.2.1.3 Mechanism of Differentiation

2.4.11.2.2.1.3.1 Outline

Mechanism of Differentiation is quite complicated. Details of Differentiation Mechanism are unclear. Yet, it would be categorized into 2 groups. One is Mechanism around the DNAs (Epigenetic Control). The other is signals from other cells (Signaling).
* "Cellular Differentiation in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_differentiation

2.4.11.2.2.1.3.2 Epigenetic Control

2.4.11.2.2.1.3.2.1 Nucleosome Control through Histone Modification

As mentioned before, such difference of potency comes for example from the situation of nucleosomes like "Beads-on-a-String" structure and chromatin. DNAs should be housed in nuclei and DNAs should be shrunk through nucleosomes and chromatin. However, nucleosomes affect specific transcription and protein biosynthesis, then situation of nucleosomes and chromatin affect cells' destiny involving differentiation.

>>>>>>>>>>>>
DNAs show some types in shape.

Shapes of DNA
from left to right
(1) DNA Double Helix, (2) Nucleosome, (3) 10 nm "Beads-on-a-String" Chromatin Fibre,
(4) 30 nm Chromatin Fibre, (5) 30 nm Chromatin Fibre (wide view),
(6) Active Chromosome, (7) Active Chromosome (wide view),
(8) Metaphase Chromosome, (9) Metaphase Chromosome (wide view)
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chromatin_Structures.png

(1) A DNA is basically a twisted long ladder.

(2) Nucleosome
On the other hand, since Human DNAs in a cell are some 2 m in total and they should be housed in a nucleus some 10 μm in diameter, DNAs are commonly shrunken (wound). DNAs are shrunken (wound) mediated by Histone.
Histone is a kind of proteins. 8 molecules of histone form a "histone octomer." DNA usually winds itself around "histone octomers" and forms "nucleosome." DNA winds 2 turns around each histone octomer as nucleosome.

Nucleosome
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nucleosome_organization.png

* "Nucleosome" https://www.bio.cmu.edu/courses/03231/LecF04/Lec01/Nucleosome.html
* "Nucleosome in HubPages" http://nathanielzhu.hubpages.com/hub/Nucleosome-Structure-Part-1
* "Nucleosome in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleosome

(3) Chromatin (10 nm Beads-on-a-String Chromatin Fibre)
A chain of nucleosomes is a chromatin. Then the length of DNA is shortened in the shape of nucleosome or chromatin. Nucleosomes firstly form 10nm Beads-on-a-String Chromatin Fibre.
10 nm Beads-on-a-String Chromatin Fibre is active in transcription (protein synthesis), supposedly because DNAs are partly wound and strings are still quite exposed.

Beads-on-a-String
*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chromatin_Structures.png

(4) Chromatin (30 nm Chromatin Fibre)
When 10 nm Beads-on-a-String Chromatin Fibre is furthermore wound, it would be 30 nm Chromatin Fibre.
30 nm Chromatin Fibre is less active in transcription (protein synthesis), supposedly because DNA string is less exposed.
Since Nucleosomes partly stick to DNA, Nucleosomes partly oppose DNA transcription. Then it should be noted that situation of Nucleosomes or Chromatin affects specific transcription, protein biosynthesis, and consequently determines cellular property.
>>>>>>>>>>>>

Situation of Nucleosomes and Chromatin can be controlled through Histone Modification.
An example is Histone Acetylation. DNAs are acidic, while Histone is basic (alkaline) proteins. Then DNAs are generally intimately wound around Histone. On the other hand, Histone has some tails as seen below.

Nucleosome
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Nucleosome_1KX5_colour_coded.png
When an enzyme histone acetyltransferase (HAT) works on a specific Histone's tail, an acetyl group is added to the tail. Then the basic (alkaline) property of Histone is changed into neutral, intimacy between Histone and DNA is lost, the winding becomes quite loose, specific DNA sequences are partly exposed, transcription and protein (enzyme) synthesis partly take place around the acethylated Histone. Such specific protein (enzyme) synthesis results in specific differentiated property of the cell.
In contrast, when histone deacetylase (HDCA), works on the acetylated histone's tail, the acetyl group is removed, the histone reverts to basic (alkaline), the DNA is intimately wound around the Histone.
More specifically, such specific modification could be controlled mediated by specific proteins called Histone Chaperone.
Yet, such specific property should be inherited through cell division to keep differentiation, detailed mechanism is unclear.

Acetyl Group
*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Acetyl_group.svg

*Attribution: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Histone_acetylation_and_deacetylation.jpg
* "Histone Acetylation and Deacetylation in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Histone_acetylation_and_deacetylation
* "Chaperone in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chaperone_(protein)

2.4.11.2.2.1.3.2.2 DNA Methylation

Other than that, partial Methylation on DNAs occurs and results in a variety of transcription and differentiation. Yet, detailed mechanism is unclear.
* "DNA Methylation in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_methylation

2.4.11.2.2.1.3.2.3 Other Control

Similarly, other substances and phenomena such as "Pioneer Factors" like Oct4 might result in a variety of transcription and differentiation. Yet, detailed mechanism is unclear.
* "Pioneer Factor in Wikipedia" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pioneer_factor

2.4.11.2.13.1.3.3 Signaling

On the other hand, the destiny of a cell wouldn't be decided independently. For example, an Endoderm stem cell located at the site corresponding to lung wouldn't differentiate into intestine cells. If the Endoderm stem cell is completely independent of other cells, the Endoderm stem cell wouldn't be able to recognize the type of cell that he should differentiate into.
The differentiation should be affected by other cells (or its location). In this case, substances directing the differentiation come from other cells. The substances directing differentiation such as proteins and hormones are categorized as "Wnt Signaling Pathway" and "Growth Factor."
* "Wnt Signaling Pathway in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wnt_signaling_pathway
* "Growth Factor in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Growth_factor

2.4.11.2.2.1.4 Necessity of Pluripotent Cells or Totipotent Cells

In generative medicine, human cloning, or human rebirth, obtaining Pluripotent Stem Cell or Totipotent Cells is essential.
Inner Cell Mass (Embryoblast) is picked as a Pluripotent Stem Cell and cultivated. The cultivated Pluripotent Stem Cells from Inner Cell Mass (Embryoblast) is called Embryonic Stem Cells (ES Cells). However, the fertilized ovum and Inner Cell Mass are origin of humans (babies). Picking Inner Cell Mass means removing human's life. In addition, since Inner Cell Mass comes from fertilized ova, DNAs of ES Cells are naturally different from patients' DNAs, even when the patient is Inner Cell Mass's parent.
Then alternative appropriate ways like from skin cells and blood cells had been expected.

2.4.11.2.2.2 Dolly

The first cloned animal Dolly from an adult somatic cell was announced in February 1997 CE. It is said that Dolly was creared at the Roslin Institute, part of the University of Edinburgh, Scotland in July 1996 CE.
She was created as follows.
A mammary gland cell was extracted from female sheep-1. The cell was cultivated in 0.5% serum solution. (Common serum concentration is 10%. Then 20 times diluted.) Then the cell changed into pluripotent. An unfertilized ovum was extracted from female sheep-2. The nucleus of the ovum was removed. The cultivated cell (pluripotent) was implanted in the nucleus-removed ovum and fused through electronic shocks. The ovum was implanted in female surrogate sheep-3. Then Dolly was born.
In this case, the ovum extracted from female sheep-2 could have encouraged the pluripotency. (This method requires ovum.)
On the othet hand, no one succeeded in reproducing the experiment for a while because of undescribed technique.

*Attribution: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dolly_clone.svg

Cloning Process of Dolly
* "Dolly (Sheep) in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolly_(sheep)

2.4.11.2.3 Prime Minister Blair in 1997 CE

The Labour Party won the United Kingdom general election of 1997 in May and Blair became the Prime Minister of the UK in May 1997 CE.
* "Tony Blair in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tony_Blair

2.4.11.2.4 Wakayama's Clone Mice in July 1998 CE

Yanagimachi and Wakayama Teruhiko of the University of Hawaii announced Mice Cloning from adult cells and the new cloning technique (Honolulu Technique) on the UK based science journal "Nature" in July 1998 CE. On the other hand, this technique also requires ovum.
* "EurekAlert First Reproducible Cloning of Mammals" http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/1998-07/NC-FRCO-220798.php
* "Nature (Journal) in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nature_(journal)

* "Accessexcellence Mice Joined Clone Club" http://www.accessexcellence.org/WN/SUA12/mouseclub798.php
* "Accessexcellence Honolulu Technique" http://www.accessexcellence.org/WN/SUA12/images/clonefig.gif

2.4.11.2.5 Westinghouse Nuclear Power Business Sale in 1998 CE

Since Nuclear Power Plant construction stopped in the USA because of the Three Mile Island Accident, Westinghouse declined and business split transfer started around 1982 CE. Ultimately, the nuclear power business operated in the red was sold to British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) (owned by the UK Government) in 1998 CE.
Rockefeller's potential control over Westinghouse nuclear power business was, in a sense, failed.
* "BNFL in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BNFL

2.4.11.2.6 Project Seal

Project Seal, the study of artificial destructive Tsunami bomb was disclosed in 1999 CE.
* "Tsunami Bomb in Wikipedia" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami_bomb

2.4.11.2.7 Aryana Havah's Inuaki Reptilian Story in 2000 CE

Aryana Havah was a Romanian woman psychologist. One day, a boy with the assumed name David visited her with his mother and talked about the voice in his head from another planet. According to David, the name of the voice is "Aghton." The planet of Aghton is Inua close to Orion. The beings on Inua is Inuakis. David's previous life was an Inuaki on Inua. He is reincarnating on the Earth as a human. After starting his talk, David requested Havah that Aghton is expecting Havah to write down David's (Aghton's) story and spread it over the world.
The planet Inua located near Orion. The native residents of Inua were Inuakis. Inuakis are humanoid but like lizards about 2 m tall with 2 arms, 2 legs, and a tail. They had 3 fingers on a hand. They didn't use fire. They were quite primitive around 800000 BCE. One day, larger humanoid beings like lizards about 3 m tall with dark gray skin came to Inua. They were called Anunnakis from the constellation Draco. At the beginning, Anunnakis were friendly with Inuakis. Anunnakis raised Inuakis. However, the true purpose of Anunnakis were making Inuakis work as slaves to obtain materials on Inua such as gold. Anunnakis raised their subordinates among Inuakis, the subordinates ruled Inuakis.
Subsequently, Anunnakis visited Earth around 400000 BCE to obtain materials such as gold. At the beginning, Anunnakis used Inuakis as slaves to obtain materials on the Earth. However, Inuakis were rebellious. On the other hand, there were ape-men on the Earth, but they were incompetent for working. Then Anunnakis created hybrids between Inuaki and ape-man as slaves. Humans on the Earth mostly descend from the hybrids. Humans DNAs partly include Inuaki's (lizard like) DNAs, but humans' physical property adapted to the environment on the Earth.
Subsequently, humans started to notice the identity of Anunnakis, Anunnakis created hybrids between Anunnakis and humans around 40000 BCE to rule humans conveniently. Some hybrids partly descended from Anunnakis were left on the Earth.
However, since humans became rather rebellious, Anunnakis created religions around 4500 BCE to lead humans worshipping them. The Sumerian material was fabricated to misunderstand the history.
* "Goodreads Aryana Havah" http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/4476353.Aryana_Havah
"Inuaki, the Reptilian Inside Me Summary" http://www.ashtarcommandcrew.net/forum/topics/inuaki-the-reptilian-inside-me?xg_source=activity
"Humans are Free Inuaki, Reptilian Inside Me" http://humansarefree.com/2010/12/our-true-history.html
* "Encyclopedia for Safety Hawa Ariana Inuaki Reptile in Me; Conversation" http://survincity.com/2012/01/hawa-ariana-inuaki-reptile-in-me-extraordinary/

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Eventually, the Russian alcoholic noticed the Jewish context and allied with Vladimir Putin in 1999 CE. Vladimir Putin, who is a grandson of Stalin's cook and familiar with the context through the KGB, recovered the Russian power.
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