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2.5.10 Contemporary Physics 4
Contemporary physics completed Quantum Electrodynamics
(unification of Quantum Mechanics, Electromagnetic Force, and the Special Theory of Relativity)
and Quantum Chromodynamics
(unification of Quantum Mechanics, the Strong Force, and the Special Theory of Relativity, referring to
the Weak Force).
Then the theories were summarized as the Standard Model
(excluding the General Theory of Relativity and gravity).
Other than that, other circumstances were reported.
220.127.116.11.1 Standard Model around 1978 CE
Quantum Electrodyamics and Quantum Chromodynamics were mostly completed.
The Standard Model would be a summary of theories on elementary particles,
forces (excluding gravity), space, and so forth in physics
as of around 1978 CE.
The Standard Model mostly consists of elementary particles,
their property (including quantum mechanics),
their relation, and property of field (space) including the Theory of Relativity and
its state after the Big Bang.
Elementary particles are categorized into "Fermions" and "Bosons" according to their spin.
(Particles with half-integer spins are fermions, with integer spins are bosons.)
Substances mostly consist of fermions. Bosons are mostly associated with forces.
For example, atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons, but consequently consist of
Quarks and Leptons.
For example, a proton consists of 3 Quarks. An electron is a kind of Leptons.
By the way, elementary particles including quarks and electrons originally have no mass.
Mass is in a sense property of resistance against forced motion.
(Heavy objects wouldn't easily be moved by force according to common sense.)
If there is only one elmentary particle in the universe, it would move freely.
However, when other elementary particles coexist, the motion is restricted.
This property of restriction or resistance is mass. Details are mentioned below.
(Other than that, particles with property of
mass would be associated with gravity or curved spacetime
yet the Standard Model wouldn't range over gravity.)
There are 6 kinds of quarks, up quarks, down quarks, charm quarks,
top quarks, and bottom quarks.
Most quarks are up quarks and down quarks.
Up quarks and down quarks are categorized as the 1st generation.
Charm and strange are categorized as the 2nd generation.
Top and bottom are the 3rd generation.
Other than that, there are 2 kinds of spins in direction,
left-handed spin and right-handed spin. They show somewhat different properties.
For example, the Weak Force is exclusively associated with the left-handed spin particles.
Then strictly speaking from the viewpoint of spin, there are 12 kinds of quarks.
Similarly, Leptons could be categorized into 6 kinds or 12 kinds.
In addition, most particles including bosons have their antiparticles, with opposite electric charge and consequently the same mass.
The strongest force is the Strong Force related to quarks
mediated by gluons and
quark pairs such as sea quarks.
The Strong Force is a short-range force,
since heavy particles
(quark pairs, sea quarks)
are involved in consequence.
The 2nd strongest force is the Electromagnetic force acts on electrically charged particles
mediated by photons.
The 3rd strongest force (the 2nd weakest force) is the Weak Force on left-handed particles mediated by 3 Weak Bosons.
Since the Weak Bosons are consequently heavy,
the Weak Force is a short-range force.
The weakest force is gravity.
The mechanism of gravity is controversial.
On the other hand, firstly mass (property of resistance to force) of particles deficient in symmetry
is caused by Higgs Bosons with spin=0.
Since the space of present-day universe is like in a superconductive state,
properties of Higgs Bosons changed (called "condensate") and Higgs Bosons slightly restrict motion of
particles deficient in symmetry.
Then the property of resistance (mass) is firstly caused by Higgs Bosons.
(According to the Standard Model at that time, 1 kind of Higgs Bosons might have assumed,
while 5 kinds of Higgs Bosons were later assumed employing the Supersymmetric Theory)
Secondly, Quark's property of resistance (mass) is enlarged
by Quark-Antiquark pairs condensate.
Since the space of present-day universe is like
in a superconductive state,
virtual (temporary) particles (virtual Quarks)
change into Quark-Antiquark pair condensate with spin=0
consisting of L and R in helicity.
The pair condensate enlarge Quark's property of resistance (mass).
Thus secondly, Quark's property of resistance (mass) is enlarged.
On the other hand, some bosons deficient in symmetry such as Weak Bosons and Higgs
Bosons consequently have mass.
(Since Weak Bosons are exclusively left-handed, Weak Bosons are deficient in symmetry.)
Various kinds of partucles are illustrated below.
For example, the next is an illustration of Up Quark.
The circles represent particles.
"2.4M" at the lower left end of the square means mass of an Up Quark.
Mass of an Up Quark is some 2.4 MeV/c2
(mega electron volt / (speed of light)2).
Mass of particles is commonly described employing electron volt because of
The size of the circles representing particles are
roughly associated with the mass of the particles.
"1/2" at the lower right end of the square means spin of an Up Quark.
"2/3" at the upper part of the square means electric charge of an Up Quark.
"Red, blue, and green" at the upper area of the square represent 3 colors of quarks.
"L and R" at the center of the circles representing particles mean
left-handed helicity and right-handed helicity.
"Electron Volt Mass in Wikipedia"
18.104.22.168.2 Guth's Cosmic Inflation in 1979 CE
The Big Bang Theory was recognized.
However, the Big Bang Theory yet faced some problems.
Sato and Guth claimed extremely rapid exponential
expansion of the very early universe supposedly within 10-32 seconds
after the beginning of the universe.
The Inflation Theory overcame the Horizontal Problem, the Flatness Problem, and the Monopole Problem.
The Inflation Theory presumes Quantum Fluctuation at the beginning of the Big Bang.
"Cosmic Inflation in Citizendium"
"Chronology of the Universe in Wikipedia"
"Inflation Theory NASA"
"Inflation (cosmology) in Wikipedia"
"Quantum Fluctuation in Wikipedia"
22.214.171.124.3 Sato's Multiverse through Cosmic Inflation in 1981 CE
Cosmic Inflation Theory was presented.
Multiverse through Cosmic Inflation
Sato refined the Cosmic Inflation Theory and
claimed creation of some universes together with this universe derived
from the Quantum Fluctuation at the beginning of the Big Bang.
The images could be as follows.
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